Topic Search: T


T cells

T cells can play different roles. They can act as “killer cells”, attacking cells which have been infected with a virus or another kind of pathogen, or they can act as “helper cells” by supporting B cells to produce antibodies - Genevieve Timmins

T cells & Covid-19

While the latest research suggests that antibodies against Covid-19 could be lost in just three months, a new hope has appeared on the horizon: the enigmatic T cell - Zaria Gorvett


Getting your tonsils out used to be just part of childhood — a rite of passage for children in the 1950s and '60s. Then it fell out of favor. But tonsillectomy is back. Today, the most common reason for the surgery is sleep disordered breathing - Nancy Shute

T-cell Tests

With an evolving understanding of T-cells in immunity and emerging SARS-Co-V2 strains, evaluating these vital protection cells can offer researchers insights into response and how to develop future therapies and vaccines - John Parkinson

T3 (Triiodothyronine)

T3 thyroid hormone has profound physiological effects in the body and affects everything - Dr. Eve Henry MD

T4 (Thyroxine)

Thyroxine is the main hormone secreted into the bloodstream by the thyroid gland. It is the less active form of thyroid hormone and most of it is converted to a more active form called triiodothyronine (T3) by local tissues including the liver, kidneys, skeletal and heart muscles, central nervous system, skin - You and Your Hormones

Table Sugar

Sucrose, ordinary table sugar, is probably the single most abundant pure organic chemical in the world and the one most widely known to nonchemists. Whether from sugar cane (20% by weight) or sugar beets (15% by weight), and whether raw or refined, common sugar is still sucrose - Karl Harrison


Tachydysrhythmias are defined as any abnormal cardiac rhythm with a rate greater than 100 beats per minute. The tachydysrhythmias include a large number of diagnoses including atrial (atrial fibrillation/flutter, supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), multifocal atrial tachycardia (MFAT)) and ventricular dysrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF) and Torsades de Pointes) - Anand Swaminathan, MD


The search for healthier sugar substitutes is ongoing for clean living and home cooking. As of 2019, Advanced Biotech (ABT) reported that those who use sugar alternatives prioritize natural, organic, non-GMO alternative products, efficiency to assist busy lifestyles, and low-calories options. This combination can be challenging. The latest alternative sugar aiming to meet those needs is tagatose - Caitlin Morris

Tai Chi

For modern, harried lifestyles focused on getting and spending, fitness experts say tai chi, the ancient Chinese slow-moving exercise, can be an ideal way for anyone to stay fit - Dorene Internicola

Takayasu Arteritis

Takayasu's arteritis, formerly known as “pulseless disease,” is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disease which affects the vessels in the body - Tiwari Ashutosh


Ordering takeout makes things a lot easier, but it comes at a cost to the environment. Luckily, there are a lot of things both restauranteurs and customers can do to reduce and reuse - Ariana Marini

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

Broken-heart syndrome was first isolated by Japanese researchers 25 years ago, who named the condition takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Takotsubo is a Japanese term which means octopus trap, a reference to the ballooning shape of the heart during an attack - WSJ

Talcum Baby Powder

While the International Agency for Research on Cancer considers genital use of talc-based body powder as “possibly carcinogenic to humans,” the evidence that baby powder leads to ovarian cancer is far from conclusive - Allison Fox

TamiFlu & Relenza

You have to wonder what the thinking is at the CDC when it decided to recommend Tamiflu as a first line treatment against the flu - The Atlantic


Tamoxifen’s introduction was timely as it heralded the era of powerful and, perhaps more importantly, better-tolerated agents targeting oestrogen signalling in breast cancers - A. Howell


When my friend, Erica told me about organic (yes, there is such a thing) tampons, I was very, very intrigued. Why? because…well if I’m putting something where the sun don’t shine, I’d certainly prefer it as clean/pure as possible - Lauryn Evarts

Tamsulosin (Flomax)

Adrenergic receptor antagonists are the primary therapy for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia presenting with lower urinary tract symptoms and are used by 80% of physicians as the first-line agent to treat this common condition in the aging male - Perinchery Narayan MD

Tanning Beds & Tanning

It's so important to encourage the use of suncream, tan in a bottle and the disuse of sunbeds which are known world-wide as causes of skin cancer - Peter Andre

Tap Water

Your zip code or your income level should not dictate your access to healthy drinking water - Alex Padilla

Tapeworm diet

So, with all the failed diet plans out there, should we head back to the future with tapeworm eggs? I’ll just say, no thanks. And so do public health experts - Janet Golden, PhD

Tapeworms (Cysticercosis)

Parasitic worms leave millions of victims paralyzed, epileptic, or worse. So why isn’t anyone mobilizing to eradicate them - Carl Zimmer

Targeted Cancer Therapy

Newer, targeted therapies are often described as “silver bullets”. I think of them more as heat-seeking missiles programmed to find and attack cancer but leave healthy cells alone - Naomi Elster

Targeted Therapy Breast Cancer

Targeted therapies are drugs that block specific mechanisms in certain cancer cells. They are chosen according to the “identity card” of the cancer, by targeting specific molecules present on the surface or inside the cancer cells. By acting specifically on one of these molecules, tumor development is interrupted while limiting the harmful effects of treatment - Paris Breast Center

Taste Dysfunction & Covid-19

The taste impairment in COVID-19 patients is reported as hypogeusia, a diminished sense of taste; dysgeusia, an alteration or distortion of taste sense; and ageusia, a complete loss of taste - Yasuo Okada

Tattoos & Piercings

Humans have been marking their skin permanently for thousands of years. A tattoo can be a remembrance, a constant prayer, a warning, or simply an amazing work of art - Alan Taylor

Tau Protein & Alzheimer's

Tau protein—not amyloid—may be key driver of Alzheimer’s symptoms - Emily Underwood


Taurine has intrigued the scientific community since its discovery 200 years ago in ox bile. It plays a hand in multiple life-sustaining functions, such as supporting heart health, metabolism, and promoting the growth of new brain cells. Previous research has linked taurine deficiency to deteriorating eyesight, increased inflammation in the brain, and skeletal problems—all issues seen in age-associated disorders. What’s more, taurine, which has neuroprotective effects against toxicity, is found in low amounts for people with neurodegenerative conditions -


TAVR has transformed treatment of certain heart-disease patients by giving them an alternative to open-heart surgery -

Tay-Sachs Disease

Learning how to live with death – that final wilderness from which none of the parents of children with Tay Sachs returns – was also about learning how to live - Emily Rapp

TB Gold and T-SPOT Test (Interferon-Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) tests)

It’s more advanced and faster than the old skin test method and doesn’t get mixed up with the TB vaccination, making the results more reliable - STI Test London

TB Vaccine

While we have vaccines to thank for the decline of global diseases like measles and smallpox, vaccination’s role in the worldwide battle against TB has been comparatively minimal - Natalie Shure


Brain injuries are so complicated, each one exhibiting different symptoms, healing a different way, with results never being exactly the same. One person can have severe headaches, and someone else has none - Lisabeth Mackall

TBI & Kevin Pearce – Dream Interrupted

According to The Brain Injury Recovery Network, "Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability among children and young adults

TCA Overdose

Use a QRS > 100 msec, a target pH of 7.5-7.55 and serum sodium of 150-155 mmol/L to guide sodium bicarbonate bolus therapy in TCA overdose. After 4 amps of sodium bicarbonate, if these targets are not met, consider adjunctive therapies - Michael Misch


TCM was largely ignored by Western medicine until recent years, but is slowly gaining traction among some scientists and clinicians - Stephen T Asma


Long considered a conquered childhood disease, pertussis has made a part because the combination vaccine, DTap, appears less effective than its predecessor, DTP - Tara Haelle


The best scientific evidence we have on the health benefits of tea is based on research on black and green tea. There has not been as much research on herbal teas - Diane McKay

Team Sports

Playing team sports provides the perfect opportunity for social interaction. It allows you to spend time and bond with old friends, as well as meet new ones! In addition, this increase in socialization can help reduce stress - Taylor Bennett


Tears are universal. We need them to keep our eyes lubricated, but why on earth should streams of salty drops spew forth from our eyes, blurring our vision and making our eyes puffy when we get emotional - Allison Aubrey


There is no better high than discovery - E. O. Wilson

Tecovirimat (TPOXX)

Tecovirimat showed protective efficacy against lethal challenge with every orthopoxvirus tested, in multiple animal models - Andrew T. Russo


Although transthoracic echocardiography remains the cornerstone of noninvasive cardiac imaging, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been shown to be a superior method for the identification of most cardiac sources of emboli and more cost effective

Tee Times & Tournaments

To find a man's true character, play golf with him - P. G. Wodehouse

Teen Health

Many people don't grow up knowing how to arrange for or manage healthcare. But you may be responsible for it now or very soon - Scarleteen

Teen Pregnancy

Worldwide some 17 million teenage girls give birth every year, facing increased risk of health complications during pregnancy as well as lifelong economic challenges for themselves and their families - David Brindley

Teen Sex

If the "cautious generation" has one thing to teach us, it's that safe sex is the only kind of sex to be having - Kristen Sollee

Teen Suicide

Suicide is the second leading cause of death among youth between ages 10 and 24 in the United States and across the globe. Rates of suicide death have increased since 1999, particularly among teen girls. In fact, teens in the U.S. are more likely to die by suicide than by any other medical illness - Adam Bryant Miller

Teens & Covid-19 Vaccination

Having a vaccine authorized for a younger population is a critical step in continuing to lessen the immense public health burden caused by the COVID-19 pandemic - Peter Marks

Teeth Cleaning

Prevention reduces tooth loss, but there has been little evidence to support a twice-yearly visit to the dentist for everyone - Catherine Saint Louis

Teeth Whitening

Dingy teeth were once relatively common. But after a 1989 scientific article touted the use of low levels of hydrogen peroxide, pressed against teeth...companies began producing whitening products & dentists began hawking them - Jennifer Levitz


Teff is in demand because it has various health benefits and unique nutritional contents. It’s high in fibre and rich in iron, calcium, magnesium, protein, and amino acids. But what’s really contributed to its enormous popularity, particularly in Europe and the US, is that it’s gluten free - HyeJin Lee

Telangiectasia & Spider Webs

There is more to Telangiectasia than just spider webs...


Today, telehealth has resurrected the house call more than a century after it fell out of favor. This newfangled iteration of a bygone practice is less intimate than having a doctor sitting at your bedside, but more personal than sitting on your doctor’s exam table - Marion Renault

TeleHealth & Employees

Healthcare is in the very early stages of a transformation to an entirely new model of care - Paddy Padmanabhan


Telekinesis has been ambushed with skepticism and mockery for years...Despite there being no science to back it up, many still believe that telekinesis is possible - wikiHow


We need to bring the exam room to where the patients are - Dr. Jay Sanders, telemedicine pioneer


So, would you let Facebook into your brain? Curtis Silver


Teleradiology has been at the forefront of telemedicine since its inception, and has become its poster child as the most successful application of telemedicine that exists today - Dr. Arjun Kalyanpur


One of the most well-hyped measures of biological age involves measuring the length of the ends of DNA, called telomeres - Angela Chen

Temporal Arteritis

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common primary vasculitis in adults - EyeWiki


In tennis, it is not the opponent you fear, it is the failure itself, knowing how near you were but just out of reach — Andy Murray

Tennis Apps

Ever forget a potentially game-changing USTA rule during match play? Or find yourself away from the TV while your favorite pro is playing? The answer to your problems might be right in your tennis bag...Best iPhone Tennis Apps

Tennis Elbow

I don't want to be remembered for my tennis accomplishments - Arthur Ashe

Tennis Tournaments

I really think a champion is defined not by their wins but by how they can recover when they fall - Serena Williams

Tension myositis syndrome

TMS is the term Dr. John Sarno coined to explain psychosomatic disorders and mind-body conditions. Tension Myoneural Syndrome or Tension Myositis Syndrome is explained as a condition that causes real physical symptoms, such as chronic pain, gastrointestinal issues, and fibromyalgia, migraine headaches to name a few disorders, that are not due to pathological or structural abnormalities - TMS Roundtable

Tension-Type Headaches

Tension headaches are the most common kind of headache, affecting about 40% of people in a given year. Yet they're also the most neglected by medical science and the least understood - Melinda Beck


Terpenes is a blanket term used to categorize a wide variety of secondary chemical compounds produced by cannabis, and nearly all other plants on Earth - Periodic Edibles


If we destroy human rights and rule of law in the response to terrorism, they have won - Joichi Ito

Terrorism Is Not as Simple as They Say

Terrorism has been a hot topic throughout the 21st century. But most of that talk is hot air thick enough to obscure more than it clarifies.

Test Tube Baby

Nobody knew in advance that in vitro fertilization would be, by and large, safe - Leon Kass

Test Your Water

The key to protecting yourself and your family is having reliable and convenient access to high quality testing, health analysis and personalized treatment matching. - Tap Score


Surely the power and virtue of the Testicles is very great & incredible, not onely to make the body fruitfull, but also in the alteration of the temperament, the habit, the proper substance of the body - Helkiah Crooke, physician and anatomist

Testicular Cancer

Though it’s common for any disease to be misinterpreted, diseases that target a sensitive area seem to be most affected by myth. Such is the case for testicular cancer, a rare but highly treatable cancer in men - Jacob Franek

Testicular Torsion

Pain is not normal in the testes. It can't wait. If your boy has pain in his testes, take him to the Emergency Room right away, not to the doctor or to urgent care - Reiki Doc

Testing Sites Covid-19

It’s almost like gas stations. You have to make them ubiquitous - Nick Mavrick


Unlike Popeye's spinach, however, testosterone is also, in humans at least, a relatively subtle agent. It is not some kind of on-off switch by which men are constantly turned on and women off - Andrew Sullivan

Testosterone Replacement Therapy

Physicians are prescribing hormone therapy without sufficient scientific research weighing the benefits against the risks. - Linda Carney MD

Tests Lyme Disease

The only FDA-approved Lyme disease tests rely on detecting antibodies that the body's immune system makes in response to the disease. Such a single antibody test is not an active disease indicator but rather only an exposure indicator - Rutgers University


Today, three shots and a booster every 10 years is basically 100 percent effective at preventing tetanus, whether it's contracted from a seemingly-clean kitchen knife, a diaper change, or a rusted-up nail - Eleanor Cummins

Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine

The good news is, if you had the full series of tetanus vaccine doses as a child or, for those over age 30, any booster in the past several decades, you likely have nothing to worry about - Tara Haelle


Tetracycline antibiotics are well known for their broad spectrum of activity, spanning a wide range of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria, spirochetes, obligate intracellular bacteria, as well as protozoan parasites. The first tetracyclines were natural products derived from the fermentations of actinomycetes -Trudy H. Grossman

Tetralogy of Fallot

A “tet” heart can be fully repaired but the child has to be bigger in order to be able to have enough maneuverability to fix what is broken - Amanda Seguin


It is very dangerous when society views the severely disabled as not worthy of the same treatment of the able bodied - Richard Senelick

Texting or Gamer's Thumb )De Quervain’s tenosynovitis)

“Texting thumb”, medically called De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis, earned its name as it is a painful inflammatory condition that arises from repetitive movements of the thumb. As such, this condition has also been associated with gamers, office workers, carpenters, musicians, clothes designers, chefs and new mothers - Spectrum Healthcare

Texting while Driving

Study after study has shown that texting while driving is just as dangerous as drunk driving. So if laws are meant to be about protecting the populace, why the disconnect?


Decades ago, children with TGA rarely survived past infancy. Today, with the open heart surgery required for children with this heart defect, nearly all children with TGA survive. - Children's Hospital of Philadelphia


Your thalamus is kind of like the United Parcel Service. It will gather information from various centers of the brain and spinal cord and will direct them to the correct address in the cortex -


Thalassemia can be easily prevented by pre-marital/pre-conceptual or early pregnancy screening followed by marriage counseling and antenatal diagnosis if required -


The rapid and fatal approval of thalidomide at that time ultimately was a consequence of the sole use of thalidomide-insensitive species in animal toxicity tests - Molecular Pharmaceutics, 1st December 2008

Thalidomide The Real Story & The First Seal Baby

Thalidomide, despite its sordid past is undergoing a sort of renaissance and is being manufactured and used worldwide for a variety of illnesses including leprosy


If you are really thankful, what do you do? You share - W. Clement Stone

Thanksgiving & Covid-19

It is not happy people who are thankful. It is thankful people who are happy - Unknown

Thanksgiving Thankful? For What?

Being appreciative for the good in our lives is nice, but we typically do so by comparing our lives to someone else's...It’s that kind of inner dialogue that makes me not like the word thankful

THC Gummies

Eating edibles isn't the same as smoking cannabis, as some people have found out the hard way - Phillip Smith

The ACLU: Freely Giving Toward the Cause of Freedom

The Land of the Free wouldn't be so free without the ACLU, which for a century has zealously fought for the rights of all Americans⎯for free.

The Amyloid Hypothesis

Yet another failed drug trial has prompted soul-searching about the amyloid hypothesis - Sarah Zhang

The Art of Sharing the Wealth

The world's richest African-American, Robert F. Smith may also be the most generous, and he's made making lives better an integral part of his personal success.

The Bean Protocol

The bean protocol or the Karen Hurd bean diet is a way of eating that is reported to help with many different health issues. The protocol involves eating beans or lentils regularly while avoiding certain foods and other toxins for at least 3 months - Erin Carter

The Brain Stem

The brain stem is the oldest, most primitive part of the human brain. This tube-shaped region is about three inches long and is made up entirely of nervous tissue. The brain stem forms a bridge between the brain and the spinal cord and plays the most vital role of all - Matt Coates

The Cerebellum

Long thought to be purely involved in motor activity, new roles have been discovered for the cerebellum in cognition. Yet so long on a backfoot in neuroscience research, the cerebellum is poorly understood - Jennifer J Newson

The Drugging of GenRx

Prescription drugs bring relief from illness and pain but they come with a price...drug dependence and even death have become commonplace in the older population. Can we turn it around or is it too late?

The Holidays

For some people, the holidays really are "the most wonderful time of the year," but for others they're anything but - Victoria Rodriguez

The Joint Commission

Our mission is to work closely with health-care organizations to help them improve the care they provide - Mark Chassin

The Leading Cause of Blindness Is Almost Completely Treatable

It's pretty much a fact of life that if you live long enough you will develop cataracts. But it's also pretty much a fact that you can do something about it.

The MaxLove Project Empowers the Parents of Cancer

A child’s cancer diagnosis makes even the strongest parents feel helpless. But one mom and dad turned their struggle into purpose, and they’re helping others do the same.

The NFL Says “No More” Violence Against Women. Seriously?

Call me skeptical, but after the series of horrific scandals the NFL has been dealing with this year I think the PSAs on domestic violence, are just a pathetic attempt to salvage their badly tarnished image.

The Pox is On Us

Monkey pox is actually a distant relative of the smallpox virus. Think of it as a long-lost, good-for-nothing nephew who has returned from nowhere, is now couch-surfing in your living room, and won’t leave - Shilo Zylbergold

The Question of Mandatory Flu Vaccination for Healthcare Workers

The American way is to do as we please. But when it comes to transmission of disease, obviously things aren’t quite so simple. So should healthcare workers be required to get annual flu vaccines?

The Senses

Our bodies have five senses: touch, smell, taste, sight, hearing, yet combinations of them yield more encounters than can ever be experienced - Lebo Grand

The Spleen

The spleen is like one big lymph node - Adriana Medina

The Thumb

Whichever way you want to look at it, the opposable thumb has made us what we are - National Osteoporosis Foundation of South Africa

The Tuskegee Study

The U.S. Public Health Service called it “The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male.” The world would soon come to know it simply as the “Tuskegee Study” — one of the biggest medical scandals in U.S. history, an atrocity that continues to fuel mistrust of government and healthcare among Black Americans - Allen G. Breed

Therapeutic Abortion

Abortion is inherently different from other medical procedures because no other procedure involves the purposeful termination of a potential life - Potter Stewart

Therapeutic Apheresis

Therapeutic apheresis is an umbrella term describing several procedures involving blood components separation and removal for treatment purposes - Dobri Kiprov MD

Therapeutic Hypothermia

Protocols that focus on achieving hypothermia (32°C–33°C) confer risk without any clear benefit. Active temperature management with a target of normothermia makes sense - Patricia Kritek MD

Therapeutic Riding

Whether they have a physical handicap or an emotional handicap or a mental handicap, when you’re around a horse. The energy is so powerful that it tunes the body up. That’s why there are so many therapeutic riding programs - Mayisha Akbar


We often think of a nutritional deficiency as something that happens only in dire situations, like visible starvation. However, in the case of thiamine deficiency, the person may appear healthy, but be starving for this particular nutrient - Howard Forman


Very few agents used for the treatment of any disease can boast such staying power, which is a testament both to the efficacy and safety of these compounds and to the relevance of salt and volume control in the management of essential hypertension - Marvin Moser MD

Third Degree AV Block

Pharmacological interventions should be considered temporary, often insufficient, treatments that can be attempted until a pacemaker is established -

Third Nerve Palsy

Third nerve palsy is an uncommon condition that carries significant risk of serious disease due to both the variability of its presentation and its association with intracranial aneurysms - Michael M. Woodruff MD & the absence of mydriasis (a.k.a “Rule of the Pupil”)is not a sensitive way to r/o a compressive aneurysm - Richard Xiang


Unless there is the presence of an immediately life-threatening condition such as empyema, hemothorax, or tension hydrothorax causing cardiovascular collapse, drainage can be deferred to an inpatient or outpatient setting.- Andrew Cunningham MD

Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

In younger patients, TAA is often due to a genetic cause. These include connective tissue disorders such as Marfan syndrome, Loeys–Dietz syndrome, and vascular Ehlers–Danlos syndrome - Maya J Salameh

Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Management

Endovascular or surgical repair is necessary when the thoracic aortic aneurysm reaches a significant size (5-6 cm or larger), which increases the risk of aortic dissection or rupture - Northwestern Medicine

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

The causes are varied, from rib displacement, to repetitive motions or even scar tissue. The different possibilities are among the reasons it is difficult to diagnose - Dan Martin

Thoracic Skeletal Injuries (Rib Fractures)

Rib fractures are the most common chest injury. Although very painful for the patient, the problem with a rib fracture is not usually the fracture itself, but with the potential for internal injury that accompany the fractures -

Thoracic Vascular Injuries

Although relatively rare, blunt injury to thoracic great vessels is the second most common cause of trauma related death after head injury. Over the last twenty years, the paradigm for management of these devastating injuries has changed drastically - James V O'Connor

Thoracic Vent

The conventional treatment of a spontaneous or iatrogenic pneumothorax is with a small-bore thoracostomy tube also known as a pigtail catheter. However, there are other devices available to treat this condition that can be deployed more rapidly and with similar success rates. In some cases, patients treated with these devices do not even require hospitalization - Gabe Gao

Thoracolumbar Spinal Fractures

Most of the fractures occur at the thoracolumbar junction. This is a transition zone (T12-L2): the thoracic vertebrae are more rigid in compare to the mobile lumbar region which means that the transition zone receives the biggest load during impacts - Physiopedia


Size may not be as important as you think - Simon Carley

Throat Infections

Invariably your doctor may prescribe antibiotics for 'strep throat' but could antibiotics be more harmful than good when it comes to a sore throat, especially since the bulk of throat infections are viral in origin - ER Stories

Throat Issues

There are numerous reasons to develop throat problems. Therefore, it is a common condition. You can develop viral infections, allergies, acid leaks, and other problems - Michael Burnett MD

Thrombocytopenia {Low Platelets)

When thrombocytopenia is severe (20-30,000/microliter), and other obvious causes are ruled out, many doctors administer the first-line treatments for ITP: prednisone, anti-D, IVIG. A rapid response to these therapies supports the diagnosis of ITP - PDSA


A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. An abnormally elevated count of >450,000/microL is known as thrombocytosis. Its differential diagnosis is broad - Maryam B. Shapland DBIM

Thrombolysis for Acute STEMI

Thrombolytic therapy has several limitations, many of which have been overcome with the adoption of percutaneous coronary intervention techniques in recent years - S S Iyengar

Thrombolysis for Ischemic Stroke

The ‘biggest, baddest’ controversy in EM - Ruth SoRelle MPH

Thrombolytics (Clot Busters)

The development of thrombolytics (“clot-busters”) to treat heart attack and stroke followed a complex pathway of basic research and clinical observation. Natural clot busting agents, from human blood vessels, leeches, vampire bat saliva, and bacteria all played a role in helping scientists understand how to harness the power of thrombolytics to save lives - Cathryn Delude


Thrombophilia(s) is a state of high tendency to form blood clots.This state can be acquired or inherited which is the main reason behind this term being often used in plural - Martha Roper


Thrombosis remains a major cause of death... yet many people have little or no understanding about the causes and effects of thrombosis, and how it can be prevented - Thrombosis UK

Thrombosis and Covid

Acute Covid-19 is not only a lung disease, but significantly affects the vascular and coagulation systems - Resia Pretorius

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a microangiopathic disorder, which has become remarkably better understood over the last 3 decades. This disease, with a nearly 90% mortality rate when left untreated, is now managed with great success and typically without long-term sequela - J. Dane Osborn MD

Thumb (Bennett & Rolando) Fractures

Thumb metacarpal fractures are rare because of the thumb’s inherent mobility. However, when fractures do occur they usually involve the base — and the Bennett fracture is the most common type - Mike Cadogan

Thumb Dislocations

Thumb dislocations can present with or without lacerations, and are often associated with ligamentous injuries - James R. Roberts MD and Martha Roberts PNP

Thumb Injuries

Identifying and treating thumb injuries is extremely important. Thumb function constitutes 50% of hand function as a whole - Dr Colin Tidy

Thumb Sucking

When kids suck their fingers and thumbs, turns out there’s a bit of a Chemical Party that happens, and boy is it pumping! All of these dudes called Dopamine, Serotonin and Endorphins rock up and create happy chilled little person who you can barely get any sense out of they’re so zonked out - Thumb Sucking Professionals


The summer thunderstorm is great theater. Lightning seems like it might have been hurled by the hand of an angry god. If it's close, we're treated to the sharp crack of thunder that makes us jump and the dog hide. And if it's far away, there's that heavy kettledrum rumble - Harvard Health


Though the thymus gland is only active until puberty, its double-duty function as an endocrine and lymphatic gland plays a significant role in your long-term health -

Thyroglossal Cyst

Thyroglossal duct cysts are the most common congenital cervical anomaly. They can form anywhere along the thyroid's route of migration between the tongue and the inferior neck. They often present as midline neck cysts closely associated with the hyoid bone. - Janine Amos


Thyroid problems are widespread, and it’s estimated that more than 200 million people around the world have thyroid disease. The most extensive problems are seen in area covered in the past by glaciers...Sick to Death

Thyroid Cancer

Stop what you're doing and #checkyourneck. Feel something? Say something, fast. Thyroid cancer strikes three women for every one guy, and it’s much more curable if you catch it early - Christine Coppa

Thyroid Cancer & Dancing with the Stars

Why the hell didn’t I check this eight months ago when my doctor told me to? Too busy, I guess. This feels like an irresponsible, stupid and lame excuse - Brooke Burke-Charvet

Thyroid Function Tests

Although most thyroid function test patterns are easy to interpret, and concordant with clinical assessment of thyroid status, a small but important subset of patients exhibit results that are either discordant with the clinical picture or not congruent with each other - Olympia Koulouri

Thyroid Hormone (T3 & T4)

T4 is not the active thyroid hormone; it has to be converted into T3 in your body in order to activate your metabolism. This conversion mostly occurs in your liver, kidneys, and muscles - Renewed Vitality

Thyroid Hormone Replacement

The only way to adequately treat thyroid hormone deficiency is with thyroid hormone replacement. Controversies exist, however, as to the ideal regimen for such replacement - Alex Tessnow MD

Thyroid Nodules

That lump on your throat could be nothing – or it could be sign of a thyroid disorder or thyroid cancer - Robbie Schneider


The risk of stroke after a TIA is highest in the first few days to weeks after the TIA - UpToDate

Tianeptine (Gas Station Heroin)

Tianeptine is often abused for its euphoric effects that produce feelings similar to those of opioids - Deborah Quinn

Tibia Fibula (TibFib) Fractures

Tibial shaft fractures are the third most common fracture in children—only fractures of the femur and forearm are more prevalent. , Approximately 30% of cases of tibial fracture have an associated fibula fracture. Adolescent patients are more likely to have combined fractures of the tibia and fibula than other pediatric age groups - Radiology Key

Tic Douloureux

TN is considered to be one of the most painful afflictions known to medical practice. The pain episodes last from a few seconds to as long as two minutes - Facial Pain Association

Tick Borne Encephalitis

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most prevalent viral tick-borne zoonosis in Europe and Northern Asia - Andrei A. Deviatkin

Tick Borne Illnesses

Diseases spread by ticks are on the rise around the world, spurred by a combination of factors, including shifting climates and population sprawl into rural areas - Melinda Wenner Moyer

Tick Removal

While there are plenty of popular myths about the best way to remove a tick, we prefer that championed by the Center for Disease Control. The only tool you'll need is a fine-tipped tweezer - James Lynch

Tick Repellants

To start out, let’s begin with stating that the only repellents that we wholeheartedly believe in (after doing much research) are: Permethrin (for clothing), Picaridin, and DEET (20-30%). Permethrin is a direct-contact insecticide, and DEET being a repellent that temporarily blocks the neuron receptors that detect CO2 -

Ticks (Tick Bites)

Already, ticks spread more pathogens to humans and their livestock than any other insect or arachnid. And the risks ticks pose may only be growing, as warming temperatures and human meddling with wildlife allow them to expand their geographic range and infiltrate new hosts - Katherine J. Wu


I think singling out TikTok is a mistake. We need to look at all social media platforms, and look at how harmful they may have been - Jamaal Bowman

Time for Mammograms to Be a Thing of the Past?

A new study is merely the latest suggesting that mammograms may net more harm than good. With a new "breast-friendly" procedure in the works, perhaps now is the time to put the mammogram out to pasture.

Tinea Dermatophytosis

Treatment may require several weeks. Only by treating for at least one week after the resolution of symptoms (and for a total of at least 4 weeks) can one guarantee eradication - Dr. Greene


Although many treatments have shown some promise, none is consistently effective. Recent research suggests why: Tinnitus is a lot more complicated than just a ringing in the ears. It is more like a ringing across the brain

Tirzepatide (Mounjaro/Zepbound)

Like semaglutide, Mounjaro mimics the effects of GLP-1, but it also hits receptors for another hormone—GIP. That leads to even more weight loss by further attenuating focus on food and potentially also increasing the activity of a fat-burning enzyme - Yasmin Tayag

Tissue Biopsy

Biopsies are seen as the best way of detecting the illness – but they have traditionally often required invasive techniques - Jessica Glenza

Tissue Engineering

Tissue engineering is a set of techniques to produce tissue, primarily for repair or improvement of human body functions. There are also some additional spin-off applications, such as screening of pharmaceutics and artificial meat - Prof. Bengt Kasemo

Tissue Transplantation

Tissue grafts help 50 times more people than the number who receive organ donations, and yet it's a little known and lightly regulated business - Joseph Shapiro & Sandra Bartlett

Titanium Dioxide

Titanium dioxide is a color additive used in food that can potentially accumulate in our bodies. It is associated with health risks such as DNA damage and immune system toxicity. The European Union banned the use of titanium dioxide in foods due to these safety concerns, yet the additive remains legal in the US - Zachary Goldstein MS


Tumor lysis syndrome is most common in the really fast growing blood cancers like acute leukemia (not chronic) or the intermediate / high grade lymphomas like DLBCL or Burkitts - Jeff Sharman MD

TMJ Disorder

TMJ Disorder is the second most commonly occurring musculoskeletal condition resulting in pain and disability (after chronic low back pain) - TMJ Hope

TNF Inhibitors Humira Enbrel

A new class of drugs called biologic response modifiers has transformed the lives of countless R.A. sufferers, so much so that many have been able to return to active, rich lives - Aliyah Baruchina

TNK (Tenecteplase) for Acute STEMI

Tenecteplase, a fibrin specific thrombolytic with a sufficiently long half-life to enable single bolus administration, has proven to be as efficacious as t-PA in reducing mortality rates in patients presenting with AMIs - Michael Militello PharmD.

TNK (Tenecteplase) for Ischemic Stroke

TNK is an ALT alternative not currently FDA approved for AIS

To Flu Shot or Not

Influenza is not merely an annoying bug that causes sniffles, fatigue, and sore muscles. If you are very young, old, or infirm, you make up the population that is most at risk. But will the flu shot really protect you? - Shilo Zylbergold

TOA (Tubo-Ovarian Abscess)

TOA is an inflammatory infectious mass including the fallopian tube and ovary. In severe cases it can involve the bowel and bladder - Brit Long


Tobacco is still the biggest cause of preventable death in the world. Although the total number of smokers is falling, a high percentage of teenagers and young people in their 20s continue to smoke - Ria Poole

Tocilizumab & Covid-19

Previous trials of tocilizumab had shown mixed results, and it was unclear which patients might benefit from the treatment, We now know that the benefits of tocilizumab extend to all COVID patients with low oxygen levels and significant inflammation - Peter Horby PhD

Toddler's Fracture

After you have done your thorough work up on the limping toddler… don’t be so quick to say that it is just a strain/sprain/bruise… recall that these little kidos are more likely to fracture a bone than strain a ligament - Sean M Fox

Toe Fractures

Compared with the great toe, the lesser toes are extremely forgiving. Referral is rarely necessary unless the fracture is open or difficult to reduce - Anesthesia Key

Toenail Fungus

You don’t have to have have crumbly, discolored, unhealthy nails forever. Toenail fungus is more treatable, maybe even curable, than you think - Marty Munson


The tops of our toes are susceptible to injuries. The nail layer on the toe serves as a protective cap for the toe to prevent injuries and infections. The hard covering of toenails protects and fortifies the dense network of blood vessels, muscles, and flesh beneath them. Toenails also exert counter pressure on our toes - Ashish


Tofu gets a bad rep because it’s made from soy, which is a highly demonized food in the nutrition world - Amanda Holtzer MS RD

Tomahawk (Face to Face) Intubation

Basically this means we are intubating from the front of the patient with the patient in the seated position.** Thus it is ideal for those patients who you do not want to lay flat (think pulmonary edema, obese, tenuous oxygen saturations, or dynamic airway obstruction). This is most often (and most easily) done with some form of video laryngoscope -Taming the SRU

Tommy John Injury Ulnar Collateral Ligament UCL Tear

To Tommy John or not…that is the question - Lenny Macrina

Tongue Tie (Ankyloglossia)

The procedures appear to be more popular than ever. Even some of their original proponents now worry the releases are performed too often - Katie Thomas, Sarah Kliff and Jessica Silver-Greenberg

Tonic Water

Among foods and drinks that are ingested solely for reasons of taste, tonic water is unique in that it was first and foremost a medicine. Since medicines tend to have side effects, is it possible that a hidden health risk is swirling around in tonic water? The answer is yes, with some caveats - Luke Yoquinto


IOP measurements above 21 mmHg in the setting of ocular complaints are an indication for emergent treatment and referral - Melanie Yates MD


IOP measurements above 21 mmHg in the setting of ocular complaints are an indication for emergent treatment and referral - Melanie Yates MD

Tonsil Stones (Tonsilloliths)

While tonsil stones are relatively common, they remain little understood among many ear, nose and throat specialists - Elizabeth Svoboda


Today, tonsillectomy is probably the most obvious example of an operation performed on a large scale for decades, yet now considered to be seldom, if ever, of value - Walsh McDermott, Professor of Public Health, Cornell, USA

Tonsillectomy & Adenoidectomy

Getting your tonsils out used to be just part of childhood — a rite of passage for children in the 1950s and '60s. Then it fell out of favor. But tonsillectomy is back. Today, the most common reason for the surgery is sleep disordered breathing - Nancy Shute


Some experts feel that antibiotics for tonsillitis aren’t appropriate and are overprescribed - Dr. Axe


As part of the lymphatic system, they play an important role in the health of the body. Tonsils were once thought to be a useless part made obsolete by evolution - Live Science

Toothache (Pulpitis)

No matter how conscientious you are about your oral care routine, at some point in your life you will probably experience the discomfort of a toothache - Wendy Woudstra

Toothache Management

While the pulp contains pain-sensitive fibers, only the periodontal ligament contains pain- and pressure-sensitive fibers. Asking patients about sensitivity to sweets versus pain with chewing may help you localize the issue even before asking the patient to say ahh! - Max Kletsel MD


If you brush your teeth regularly and properly, you could live for longer. And we're not exaggerating here, the research is overwhelming: your oral hygiene does have the ability to affect your general health - Saffron Alexander


Despite all the techniques described by experts, there’s no evidence to suggest that any of them is more effective than a simple scrub - John Wainwright


As dental care has started moving from being a necessary but boring chore to another way to be glamorous, more and more products are moving onto shelves - Alina Tugend

Top Surgery

There’s something truly wonderful about referring to a procedure as specific as a bilateral mastectomy with a term as blandly ominous as top surgery - Daniel Ortberg

Toradol Ketorolac

Two things we know for certain about Toradol: 1) It's a tremendous piece of chemistry, and 2) There are as many opinions about its risks as there are vested interests. Its long-term risk profile in a healthy body is somewhere between zero and silent scourge, but where exactly we may never know because sometimes science is inexact - Louis Bien


Tornadoes remain one of the most dangerous weather events. And they buck an otherwise promising trend: While many types of natural disasters are killing fewer people over time thanks to better forecasting and stronger infrastructure, tornadoes can catch people off guard - Umair Irfan

Torsades de Pointes

This is a sudden silent killer which is rarely diagnosed because there are no tests which can definitively detect this condition -


Torticollis is not a diagnosis in itself but more like a sign for an underlying condition - Sandra Genest-Boudreau, Christophe O Alves

Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (TAPVR)

In rare instances—1 in 10,000 births... The pulmonary veins “just get lost,” draining the blood out elsewhere within the body and leaving it without any road back to the heart, a birth defect called total anomalous pulmonary venous return (TAPVR) - Sarah Badran MD

Tough Love

When someone is hard on you it may have very little to do with you ― Bryant McGill

Tourette Syndrome

More than one hundred years after the first case of Tourette syndrome was described in 1885 by French neurologist Georges Gilles de la Tourette, you'd think everyone would be familiar with Tourette's. You'd be wrong - James A Fussell

Toxic Alcohols

The toxic alcohols are methanol and ethylene glycol, which can both cause a scary anion gap metabolic acidosis in the first group and ethanol and isopropyl alcohol which aren’t quite as scary and generally don’t cause a big anion gap metabolic acidosis in the second group - Anton Helman

Toxic Chemicals

Virtually no day goes by without an alert from the media about some chemical in the environment that is suspected of harming our health - Joe Schwarcz PhD

Toxic Encephalopathy

Many people are familiar with the medical diagnosis of chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CTE... But far fewer people know that there is another common use for the CTE acronym based on the medical diagnosis of chronic “toxic” encephalopathy which is associated with repeated exposures to low levels of neurotoxic chemicals found in the workplace and environment - Marcia Ratner

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is an acute-onset, potentially life-threatening, idiosyncratic mucocutaneous reaction, usually occurring after commencement of a new medication - Patient

Toxic Gases

Depending on the toxin, the clinical presentation may be acute, with a rapid onset of toxicity (cyanide), or subacute or chronic, with a gradual onset of toxicity (air pollution) - Paul M. Wax

Toxic Megacolon

First thought to be a complication of ulcerative colitis. However, toxic megacolon may occur as a complication of any condition affecting the colon: inflammatory, infection, radiation, and pseudomembranous - Brit Long MD

Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)

It’s true that TSS, a complication of bacterial infections, has been associated with tampon use, but it doesn’t only happen in women and you don’t need to stop using tampons - Susan Rinkunas

Toxicological Emergencies

Management of toxicological emergencies is a challenge at every level of health-care system - B.R. Sharma

Toxicologist Journals

All I’m armed with is research - Mike Wallace

Toxicologist Organizations

A true leader is a person whose influence inspires people to do what is expected of them to do. You cease to be a leader when you manipulate with your egos instead of convincing by your inspirations - Israelmore Ayivor


Although toxicology—as a formally recognized scientific discipline—is relatively new (with major developments in the mid-1900s), the science itself is thousands of years old - Emily Monosson


Most people think they are healthy. They are unaware that they are surrounded by a toxic world. Actually, the truth is that we are all toxic to a certain degree - Dr. Jockers


Some of the most common drugs involved in overdoses... fit into symptom complexes called toxic syndromes or “toxidromes”. These toxidromes can be recognized through analyzing patterns of physical exam findings and vital signs - Garrett Christy MD


Most people think they are healthy. They are unaware that they are surrounded by a toxic world. Actually, the truth is that we are all toxic to a certain degree - Dr. Jockers


Recognition of toxocariasis as a common parasitic disease in the US & possibly an even greater health problem in developing countries is a first important step to national & international efforts to combat this neglected infection of poverty - Peter Hotez


Could tiny organisms carried by house cats be creeping into our brains, causing everything from car wrecks to schizophrenia - The Atlantic

tPA (Alteplase) for Acute STEMI

t-PA is a superior thrombolytic agent in comparison with streptokinase. This superiority has been demonstrated in all trials in which angiographie patency has been measured early after drug administration - Guy S. Reeder MD

tPA (Alteplase) for Ischemic Stroke

The treatment is not perfect. Patients generally must be treated within three hours of the onset of symptoms, and TPA carries a risk of brain hemorrhage - Advisory Board

Tracheobronchial Injury

Tracheo-bronchial tree injuries are rare, but potentially life-threatening, in both adults and children. They are well-known sequel of massive blunt or penetrating injuries of the neck or chest, that may occur as a rare complication of endotracheal intubation - Jerry Jacob

Tracheostomy Dependent

The trach really isn’t as scary as we imagine it to be. Really - Shauna Bryner

Tracheostomy Emergencies

Patients presenting to the ED with respiratory distress and a tracheostomy can unnerve almost any provider, and management is often fraught with preventable errors - Puja Gopal MD


It is the world's leading cause of preventable blindness, and is one of the oldest diseases known to man - International Trachoma Initiative


The future of wearable technology in fitness and health isn’t about the fitness bands and health monitors – it’s about what can be done with the data they collect - Riaan Conradie

Traditional Chinese Medicine

TCM was largely ignored by Western medicine until recent years, but is slowly gaining traction among some scientists and clinicians - Stephen T Asma


Taken as prescribed, tramadol is a highly effective drug — the problems seem to arise where the dosage is exceeded or it is taken with alcohol and/or other drugs that have a sedative effect - Jo Waters

Tranexamic acid

TXA is a generic drug that’s been around for decades, and in fact is sold over-the-counter in Europe and Japan for heavy menses. Delivered via IV to trauma patients, it’s been found to be lifesaving, with no dangerous side effects - Matt Bivens MD


The drug exists in a legal gray zone. Approved 50 years ago by the F.D.A. as a veterinarian-prescribed analgesic, it is not listed as a controlled substance for animals or humans and so is not subject to strict monitoring. Thus, it has not been on the radar of federal law enforcement for diversion or abuse - Jan Hoffman


The term tranquilizer is often used as if it were an official drug category. However, this is not the case. Instead, it is a more casual term that references any medication with a tranquilizing or sedating effect, reducing tension and anxiety in the person taking it. They come from many different drug classes, including benzodiazepines and barbiturates - Roger Weiss MD

Trans Fats

Thank God! Trans fats are banned at last. But they are still in our foods, so beware - Mark Hyman MD

Trans Vaginal Meshes

The adaptation of surgical mesh to gynae and colorectal surgeries is not well supported by research or clinical trials. There are ongoing reports of significant complications...Women's Health Action

Trans Youth

Young trans people face numerous challenges in life. These can include social discrimination, bullying, harassment and family rejection. It’s maybe not surprising then that trans youth are also at much higher risk of self-harm and suicide attempts than their peers - Jack Lopez


With all this challenges we are sure that Medical transcription is still a blooming industry with tons of job offers with high quality pay -

Transcutaneous Pacemaker Placement

Non-invasive temporary pacing (NTP), an accepted emergency intervention since 1982, has been shown to be safe and effective over the ensuing years. It is considered to be a “tried and true” treatment modality, so little is written about it today - Resuscitation Central

Transfusion Reactions

The two reactions that are more common than severe reactions: Isolated fever and simple allergic reaction. In order to remember this, make believe you grew up in Staten Island and pronounce it as "FevA." And the only prescription is giving Tylenol - Jim Kenny, MD

Transgender & Bathrooms

Unisex bathrooms in public areas will solve the Transgender controversy but what about hygiene?

Transgender Athletes & Sport

Contrary to fears expressed by some, there has been no large-scale dominance of transgender athletes in women’s sports - Gillian R. Brassil and Jeré Longman

Transgender Discrimination

No one should be denied a job, a place to live, or access to a public place or business simply because of who they are. Unfortunately, these kinds of rejection are all too common for transgender people - ACLU

Transgender Health

Like any other definable group, transgender people have particular health disparities as compared to the overall population. It is important to understand these disparities, but not to assume that all transgender people have the same risks - American Medical Student Association

Transgender Health Rights

As a community, trans and non-binary people continue to face barriers to accessible health care services due to discrimination from insurers, providers, staff, and healthcare services - Protect Trans Health

Transgender Healthcare

At a time when more and more transgender people are seeking health care, access to quality care remains illusive for many - Harvey Makadon MD

Transient Aphasia

It’s important to understand transient aphasia doesn’t impair intelligence, only the ability to communicate - Duncan Gumaer

Transient Synovitis

The typical age is between 3 and 6 years, sometimes just after a URI. To be comfortable with this diagnosis, we should have considered all of the dangerous diagnoses, the child should be well, afebrile, in minimal discomfort, and he should respond almost completely to an NSAID - Dr. Tim Horeczko

Translational Medicine

This modern era that sees us diagnosing disease by genome sequencing, developing RNA-based therapeutics, and finding once-unimaginable cancer cures reinforces the necessity of the physician-scientist to continue the momentum of discovery and its translation to public health - Paul J. Utz


And if there is one thing we can definitively state, it’s that this virus is much, much less likely to spread outdoors than in - Maggie Koerth

Transplant Emergencies

Beware the transplant patient: involve the transplant physician, transplant surgeon, and specific organ consultant for evaluation and management - Brit Long MD

Transplant Surgeon Journals

Many ideas grow better when transplanted into another mind than in the one where they sprung up - Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr.

Transplant Surgeon Orgs

The Wright brothers' first flight was shorter than a Boeing 747's wing span. We've just begun with heart transplants - Dr. C. Walton Lillehei

Transplant Surgeons

Our most vexing challenges in medicine right now are twofold: attracting young people to the field and keeping them there - David Weill


A quiet revolution is underway in human transplantation - Arthur Caplan

Transplantation Centers

Some of the facilities for transplantation. We hope we have succeeded in making it easy for you to find one and hopefully qualify - HWN

Transplantation Hair

First find the root cause, then be very wary of scams - Laine Bergeson


A quiet revolution is underway in human transplantation - Arthur Caplan

Transposition of Great Arteries

Decades ago, children with TGA rarely survived past infancy. Today, with the open heart surgery required for children with this heart defect, nearly all children with TGA survive. - Children's Hospital of Philadelphia

Transurethral Resection of the Prostate (TURP)

Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) has traditionally been the gold standard for comparison of treatments for BPH - Jaspreet S. Sandhu

Transvenous Pacemaker Placement

Although ECG guidance is the classic technique, ultrasound provides an alternative (and in my completely non-evidence based opinion better) approach - Justin Morgenstern

Transverse Myelitis

The damage caused by TM in the span of a few minutes or days can leave a person with a lifetime of agony...This disease strikes children, adolescents, and adults, from everywhere, leaving them partially or totally immobile - Laurie Zissimos

Tranylcypromine (Parnate)

They are now seen as “drugs of last resort,” and have all but disappeared from the list of drugs that doctors prescribe for depression - Sue Trupin


Trauma is an increasingly significant cause of death and disability throughout the world. Developing countries have the highest incidence of injuries - Primary Trauma Care Foundation

Trauma Emergencies

So what do we do in that first hour - Rush Emergency Medicine

Trauma Facilities

Think about some things you didn’t know you needed … or hoped you’d never need until you do... That’s how it is with trauma centers - LifeSigns

Trauma Resuscitation

While not much is new in the world of hustlin’, when it comes to trauma resuscitation, the game done changed - Chris Hicks

Trauma Surgeon Journals

I believe in innovation and that the way you get innovation is you fund research and you learn the basic facts - Bill Gates

Trauma Surgeon Organizations

Successful organizing is based on the recognition that people get organized because they, too, have a vision - Paul Wellstone

Trauma Surgeons

Where would trauma systems be without trauma surgeons?

Traumatic Brain Injury

Brain injuries are so complicated, each one exhibiting different symptoms, healing a different way, with results never being exactly the same. One person can have severe headaches, and someone else has none - Lisabeth Mackall


It’s not that the goals are any different, or the people any less dedicated; but with the advancements in technique, technology and new paradigms, Trauma Surgery today is a whole lot different from the model of yesteryear -

Travel & Covid-19

Globally, freer international mobility, particularly for luxury travel, won’t be safe until countries work together to vaccinate at-risk groups around the world - Anya Zoledziowski

Travel Advisories

Infomation regarding weather warnings, health warnings, unsafe conditions, unrest in an area and much more - HWN

Travel Clinics

While your doctor can provide required vaccinations and prescribe medicine to prevent altitude sickness or other illness, a reputable travel clinic can provide specialized care tailored to your medical profile, along with tips on how to stay fit and healthy while visiting your destination country - Johanna Knapschaefer

Travel Health Apps

In a day and age where smartphones are incorporated into most aspects of our lives, we don’t have to worry about doing any of this the old fashioned way. All of the tools we need to plan a … trip are literally in the palm of our hands - Caroline Housel

Travel Insurance

You never know what could happen, and most health plans won’t cover you overseas especially citizens of countries covered by a national health plan - HWN

Travel Medicine

Climate change, security issues, economic fluctuations, demographic shifts and the threat of emerging diseases will also reshape the future of travel and mobility trends. All will influence travelers’ health and pose new challenges to travel medicine in the forthcoming decades - L. Loutan

Travel Nurses

Learn to be flexible & remember, it's only temporary unless you chose to extend. Get everything in writing & review it carefully before you sign. Get info. about the area your staying- go & explore - Highway Hypodermics

Travel Vaccinations

Travel medicine is not a ‘one size fits all’ specialty. The specific immunizations you need depend upon your itinerary, medical history and your traveling style

Traveler's diarrhea

There are just about as many misconceptions and myths about traveler's diarrhea as there are names for it. So we're here to try to set the record straight — or at least discuss what's known and not known - Michaeleen Doucleff


In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in new diagnostic information, pharmacological and neurosurgical treatments for Movement Disorders, as well as a greater understanding of impaired motor control function - MDS

Trench Foot

Trench foot is considered to be a nonfreezing cold injury often complicated by infection, in which exposure to cold temperatures just above freezing, combined with moisture, results in a peripheral vasoneuropathy - K. Mistry

Trendelenburg Position

Current data to support the use of the Trendelenburg position during shock are limited and do not reveal any beneficial or sustained changes in systolic blood pressure or cardiac output - Kane Guthrie

Trending Health News

The latest health and medical news

Trends in Healthcare

Advanced technologies such as AI, cloud computing, robotics, wearables, and telehealth systems are just a few key trends that are taking the healthcare industry by storm - Rachel Marley MSc


Marathons are old hat and Ironman races are, quite frankly, tantamount to self-flagellation but triathlons occupy the happy medium in endurance sport - Men's Health

Triathlon Apps

Thankfully modern technology is there to help and if you have mobile, you can download some great training apps to help keep you on the straight and narrow - TechMagz

Triathlon Events

Triathlon doesn’t build character. It reveals it - Unknown


Trichinella are able to infect a broad spectrum of mammalian hosts, making them one of the world’s most widely-distributed group of nematode infections - Parasitic Diseases


Trichomoniasis is one of the three major causes of vaginal infection, along with yeast infections and bacterial vaginosis (BV). It's the only one of the trifecta, though, that is officially considered an STI - Amy Marturana


Triclosan is everywhere, but its days seem to be numbered - Neel V. Patel

Tricuspid Atresia

In about 20 percent of cases it is associated with other cardiac malformations such as pulmonary stenosis, persistence of the left superior vena cava, or transposition of the great arteries - Cristiano Antonino


TCAs have become an agent of notoriety in emergency departments across the globe in instances of intentional and accidental poisonings due to drug overdoses - Atoms and Empty Space

Trigeminal Neuralgia

TN is considered to be one of the most painful afflictions known to medical practice. The pain episodes last from a few seconds to as long as two minutes - Facial Pain Association

Trigger Finger

Trigger finger occurs most commonly in the fifth and sixth decades of life - Tiffany N.S. Ballard and Jeffrey H. Kozlow


There is renewed interest in looking closer at triglycerides for measuring heart disease risk - Dr. Jonathan Salik

Trimethoprim Sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim Septra)

Trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole is an effective antimicrobial, but it has numerous adverse effects, some of which can be severe - Joanne M.-W. Ho MD

Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Triple negative breast cancer is a rarer and especially aggressive form of the disease. Unlike other types of breast cancer, triple negative breast cancer cells don’t have receptors for the hormones estrogen and progesterone (which can make cancer cells grow) or for the HER2 protein - Natasha Lavender

Triptans (5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists)

Triptans, regarded as the standard of care for treating acute migraine, are selective 5-hydroxytryptamine1B/1D (5-HT1B/1D) receptor agonists that have replaced ergot preparations because these preparations have been associated with considerable adverse events (AEs) and limited benefits - Chun-Pai Yang MD PhD

Trophoblastic disease

In many cases there may be no signs that you are having a molar pregnancy and it may go undetected until your routine early pregnancy scan at 10-12 weeks - Tommy's

Trump & Clinton

Trump - Why Donald Trump Is Good for America

As a diagnostic tool for the health of the American political system, Candidate Trump is just what the doctor ordered.

Truncus Arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus is a cyanotic congenital heart anomaly in which a single trunk supplies both the pulmonary and systemic circulation, instead of a separate aorta and a pulmonary trunk. It is usually classified as a conotruncal anomaly - Karolina Ådahl

Truth or Fiction AEDs

Few innovations have had such immediate and sweeping popularity as Automatic External Defibrillators (AEDs). However, there is no centralized registry to collect data on the use and effectiveness of AEDs.

Trypanosomiasis Sleeping Sickness Tsetse fly

While Human African trypanosomiasis or "sleeping sickness," has been declared a neglected tropical research is raising hopes that something might be done to slow its spread by targeting its sole carrier — the tsetse - Monte Morin

TSH Screening

Unfortunately, most physicians are not up to date with the latest research that shows that TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone—the main test used to check your thyroid) is unreliable and misses identifying those people who need help to improve thyroid function - Transformyou


Echocardiography is the most cost-efficient technique and the natural comparator for any other technique, even highly sophisticated ones, because of its high clinical yield, the ability to assess anatomy and function... Rosa Sicari

Tubal Ligation

If you are considering sterilization for yourself, or discussing it with your partner, please take into consideration the possible ramifications that the surgery will have - Post Tubal Ligation Syndrome is Real!

Tubal Pregnancy

In ectopic pregnancy you lose a baby, part of your fertility, face your mortality (risk to your life) and are left with huge unanswered questions about the future - The Ectopic Pregnancy Trust

Tuberculosis (TB)

Finding a new vaccine could take many years, so it is critical to also develop short- and medium-term strategies that can help reduce the rate of TB infection - Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation

Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

Because TSC can manifest in so many different ways, diagnosis is generally made when physicians identify any two major features of TSC in one individual - Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance

Tularemia & Bioterrorism

Although F. tularensis has a low mortality rate, an aerosol delivery over a metropolitan area could incapacitate hundreds of thousands of people for weeks to months, draining valuable medical resources - Federation of American Scientists

Tummy Tuck

Certainly a part of anyone’s fantasy body makeover over the age of 30 probably involves a tummy tuck - Aly Walansky

Tumor Lysis Syndrome

Tumor lysis syndrome is most common in the really fast growing blood cancers like acute leukemia (not chronic) or the intermediate / high grade lymphomas like DLBCL or Burkitts - Jeff Sharman MD

Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors

A new class of drugs called biologic response modifiers has transformed the lives of countless R.A. sufferers, so much so that many have been able to return to active, rich lives - Aliyah Baruchina

Turf Toe

Turf toe is a condition that describes injury to the plantar metatarsophalangeal-sesamoid complex of the great toe. It is a relatively rare and debilitating condition, particularly seen in American footballers after the introduction of harder, artificial ‘turf’ surfaces - Ali-Asgar Najefi


There are just about as many misconceptions and myths about traveler's diarrhea as there are names for it. So we're here to try to set the record straight — or at least discuss what's known and not known - Michaeleen Doucleff


Turkey has often been regarded as one of the healthier meat options - Jacqueline Gualtieri


An ever-growing mountain of evidence shows that boldly colored turmeric with its earthy, bitter-gingery taste may offer a plethora of potential health benefits - David Templeton

Turner Syndrome

Turner syndrome is variable, and each girl and woman will have unique health needs and characteristics - Turner Syndrome Society of the United States

Turns Out Video Games Really Are Bad for Kids

Mega video game manufacturer Nintendo has issued a warning that using their new 3D game system can be harmful to the vision development of children ages 6 and under

Twins & Health

There’s some evidence identical twins enjoy lifelong benefits from having each other - Brian Resnick


Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an old, inexpensive drug that surgeons have been quietly using for decades during surgery to reduce perioperative bleeding - Karen Serrano MD & Christina Shenvi MD PhD

TXA & Trauma

TXA is a generic drug that’s been around for decades, and in fact is sold over-the-counter in Europe and Japan for heavy menses. Delivered via IV to trauma patients, it’s been found to be lifesaving, with no dangerous side effects - Matt Bivens MD


Acetaminophen (Tylenol) is generally considered a safe medication when used as directed, but can cause liver damage in high doses or when combined with heavy alcohol use - Houman Danesh MD

Tylenol OD

Globally, acetaminophen (or paracetamol, as it is known in many other countries) is the No. 1 ingredient suspected in drug-induced liver injury deaths - Jennifer Yang

Type 2 Diabetes

Researchers long believed Type 2 diabetes was not curable, but today the prevailing view is that it can be reversed by weight loss - Dr. George King

Type I Diabetes

Although there is an increased incidence in adults, type 1 diabetes is primarily a condition of the younger population... It is without a doubt one of the most challenging chronic medical issues for families -

Types Breast Cancer

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease with many subtypes that have different treatment responses and clinical outcomes - Ozlem Yersal and Sabri Barutca

Types of Abortion

Whether a patient gets a surgical or medical abortion comes down to factors including the stage of pregnancy, the patient’s preference and state restrictions - Brittany Shammas, Aaron Steckelberg and Daniela Santamariña

Types of Insulin

Insulin is a crisis medication - Susan Burton

Types of Salts

As an essential nutrient, we mine it thousands of feet beneath the Earth’s crust and harvest it from the sea. For millennia, salt has been an important commodity. Slaves in ancient Rome were bought with it. The wages of a Roman soldier, who was paid partially in salt, were cut if he “wasn’t worth his salt.” - Heather Blackmore

Types of Sugar

It’s hard to find a more controversial topic than sugar, which is never far from the media’s attention. From the recent hype surrounding That Sugar Film to the continued demonizing of high fructose corn syrup, we can’t stop talking about sugar and how we’re likely eating too much of it - Mary E. Gearing

Typhoid Fever

Salmonella typhi, known to cause typhoid fever, is distinguished from other forms of Salmonella by a dangerous toxin - Anoopah Singh


Typhus fevers include scrub typhus, murine typhus, and epidemic typhus. Chiggers spread scrub typhus, fleas spread murine typhus, and body lice spread epidemic typhus - CDC

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