Topic Search: R



Evaluation of patients with chest pain has made a huge transition, especially with the introduction of cardiac troponin measurements and risk stratification tools - Barbra Eva Backus MD


Rabies has never killed humans in great numbers, but it inspires fear far out of proportion to the risks. In part, this is because of the savage, almost supernatural mania that can grip its victims before they die - Wired

Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis

Pasteur’s rabies vaccine—which, because of the long latency period between bite and brain infection, could be administered days after someone was bitten—transformed an arbitrary killer into a preventable disease - Monica Murphy et al

Rabies Vaccine

Pasteur’s rabies vaccine—which, because of the long latency period between bite and brain infection, could be administered days after someone was bitten—transformed an arbitrary killer into a preventable disease - Monica Murphy et al


At a time when so much is going on, we give you a moment of calm where you can just focus on one thing, get some history, get some context and feel like you actually understand what’s happening -  Mary Harris

Racism in Healthcare

Racial discrimination has shaped so many American institutions that perhaps it should be no surprise that health care is among them. Put simply, people of color receive less care — and often worse care — than white Americans. - Austin Frakt

Radial Head Fractures

Though elbow fractures, such as an intra-articular radial head fracture, are not high in volume, we misdiagnose them at such a large rate that they still qualify as one of the most commonly missed fractures - Ryan Lynch MD

Radial head Subluxation

Don’t fret over which technique is most superior… they both work well, so if one doesn’t work… try the other one. Usually, I’ll start with the hyperpronation, merely because the position of the arm initially makes easier to attempt - Sean M. Fox MD


We all fear radiation yet life depends on it. We each are radioactive, living on a radioactive planet, in a radioactive solar system, in a radioactive universe, in a radioactive galaxy - Robert Peter Gale, MD and Eric Lax

Radiation Exposure

There is no safe amount of radiation. Even small amounts do harm - Linus Pauling PhD Nobel Laureate

Radiation Injuries

Although more than 119 million U.S. residents live within 50 miles of a nuclear power plant, most emergency physicians are unfamiliar with management of radiation-related injuries, including mass casualty from nuclear accidents - Leslie Crosby MD

Radiation Oncologists

Radiation oncology remains one of the more misunderstood treatment modalities in cancer care. Many patients know much less about radiation than chemotherapy or surgery, and many have difficulties in comprehending the more complex aspects of treatment. Thus, there is a particularly significant role for patient education in this field - Nadia Saeed, BA

Radiation Sickness

Rapidly proliferating cell lines such as intestinal mucosa and bone marrow are most immediately sensitive to radiation and manifest the symptoms of Acute Radiation Syndrome. Exposure to less than 1 Gy (1 Gy = 100 rads) is unlikely to produce symptoms, whereas greater than 10 Gy is fatal - Leslie Crosby MD

Radiation Spills

That men do not learn very much from the lessons of history is the most important of all the lessons that history has to teach - Aldous Huxley

Radio Shows

What a great way to stay current! Download a radio show podcast and listen in your car, office or anywhere your mobile device goes- all at your convenience

Radioactive Fallout

Radioactive fallout poses the greatest threat to people during the first two weeks, by which time it has declined to about 1 percent of its initial radiation level - Patrick Allan

Radiofrequency Ablation

The treatment of cardiac arrhythmias has been revolutionized by the ability to definitively treat many patients with radiofrequency catheter ablation, rather than requiring lifelong medication - J.P. Joseph

Radiofrequency Ablation (RFA)

Vein doctors recommend radiofrequency ablation (RFA) as one of their top choices for quick, efficient, FDA-approved varicose vein treatment. Although internet articles and social media may seem more excited about sclerotherapy, vein specialists know radiofrequency ablation offers a wealth of benefits - The Vein Blog

Radiologic Technician Blogs

It is perfectly okay to write garbage - as long as you edit brilliantly - C. J. Cherryh

Radiologic Technician Careers

Diagnostic imaging has proliferated, especially in the last decade, because of increased availability and widespread utilization. As a result a career in radiology technology can be rewarding and does not limit you to just the hospital setting

Radiologic Technician CE

Education is the ability to listen to almost anything without losing your temper or your self-confidence - Robert Frost

Radiologic Techs

If you have ever said, "Turn off the lights! I can't see!", you might be an x-ray tech -

Radiologist Journals

Research is formalized curiosity. It is poking and prying with a purpose - Zora Neale Hurston

Radiologist Organizations

An organization, no matter how well designed, is only as good as the people who live and work in it - Dee Hock

Radiology (Radiologists)

There are substantial medical and productivity benefits to be gained from integrating AI with radiological practice - Thomas H. Davenport & Keith J. Dreyer DO

Radiology Procedures

There needs to be more emphasis on emerging technology that limits radiation hazards, such as some of the newer laser CT techniques, as opposed to placing imaging centers on every corner -HWN

Radiology Tech Jobs

We get enough background radiation as it is. Radiologic technicians are in a position to be patient advocates, especially when it comes to our children - HWN


Naturally occurring radionuclides are widely distributed in the earth’s crust, so it’s no surprise that mineral and hydrocarbon extraction processes, conventional and unconventional alike, often produce some radioactive waste - Valerie J Brown


Cancer is a harsh thing and the treatments are harsh, but you are stronger. Radiation saved my life - Jami Mayberry

Radiotherapy Cancer

Cancer is a harsh thing and the treatments are harsh, but you are stronger. Radiation saved my life - Jami Mayberry


Despite the risks, radon until recently has ranked pretty low on many homeowners' action lists, including mine. You can't see, smell or taste it, which makes it -- unlike mold -- easy to ignore - Gwendolyn Bounds

Radon Exposure

Radon exposure is the leading cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. Instead of being worried about airport scanners, perhaps we ought to be paying more attention to ensuring that our homes are as safe as possible!

Ramsey Hunt Syndrome

The strict definition of the Ramsay Hunt syndrome is peripheral facial nerve palsy accompanied by an erythematous vesicular rash on the ear (zoster oticus) or in the mouth.- C J Sweeney & D H Gilden

Ranitidine (Zantac)

The FDA took this action because they could no longer stomach the amount of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) that could be contaminating ranitidine medications. - Bruce Y. Lee

Ranitidine (Zantac) Recall

The FDA took this action because they could no longer stomach the amount of N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) that could be contaminating ranitidine medications. - Bruce Y. Lee


Short of homicide, [rape] is the "ultimate violation of self" - Byron R White

Rapid Antigen Tests

These tests closely mimic one of the earliest prototypes – the urine pregnancy test – and as a result they have gained wide acceptance based on their overall simplicity, low cost and relative accuracy. In some situations, especially as a screening test, they can be used instead of the more technically demanding and complex molecular and serologic assays that are still useful and helpful under many different circumstances - Charles S. Pavia

Rapid Antigen Tests Covid-19

Paper antigen tests aren’t SARS-CoV-2 tests at all, not like PCR tests are. They are rapid, cheap COVID-19 contagiousness tests - Robinson Meyer and Alexis C. Madrigal

Rare conditions

Rare diseases are inherently hard to diagnose. According to the European Organisation for Rare Disease, 25 per cent of diagnoses are delayed by between 5 and 30 years

Raspberry Ketones

Before you jump on the raspberry ketone bandwagon, there are a few things you should know about this over-priced, proclaimed weight-loss miracle in a bottle - Becky Hand

Raw Fish

Raw fish, such as sushi, and other uncooked seafood may be delicious, but they also may be dangerous – even life-threatening – if prepared inexpertly - Susan Scutti

Raw Foods Diet

Making the decision to eat a raw food diet is not an easy one. You have to first mentally take the steps to go vegetarian, then vegan, then gluten-free, and then basically give up ever eating hot food again - Julie R Thomson

Raw Honey

Honey is nature’s best gift to mankind, this natural sweetener has been used for centuries as a potent nectar extracted from the honeycomb, which has been used for its medicinal properties as well as for its health enriching properties - Times of India

Raw Milk

Raw milk: the benefits are unclear but the dangers are real - James Blaxland & Vitti Allender

Raw Sugar

The truth is, raw sugar has about the same number of calories as regular sugar and offers no tangible health benefits - Andrea Boldt

Raw Water

“Raw” water proponents say it contains healthy and natural minerals that get stripped out when tap water or bottled water is filtered and treated - Jen Kirby

Raynaud's disease

While there is currently no cure for Raynaud’s, you may be able to avoid it by avoiding the things that can trigger an attack - Karrie Sundbom


Findings on bedside ultrasound consistent with RD include a hyperechoic membrane floating in the posterior chamber. RD usually remain tethered to the optic disc posteriorly and do not cross midline, a feature distinguishing them from posterior vitreous detachments - Adnan Riaz MD

Reactive Airway Disease

Reactive airway disease has a large differential diagnosis and must not be confused with asthma - The Angry Asthma Mama

Reactive Arthritis

Reactive arthritis may be self-limiting, frequently recurring, chronic or progressive. Most patients have severe symptoms lasting a few weeks to six months - Wikipedia

Reactive Hypoglycemia

Reactive hypoglycemia, also known as postprandial hypoglycemia or sugar crash, is a phrase used to describe recurring episodes of symptomatic hypoglycemia that occur within four hours following a high-carbohydrate meal in both persons with and without diabetes, as well as in healthy individuals - Shifa Fatima MSc

Reading Is Fundamental⎯But Less So with E-Books

All technology can be considered a form of progress, but not all such progress is for the better. And when it comes to reading to kids, e-books may be a step backward from print.


REBOA is a useful tool in the treatment of life-threatening, non-compressible traumatic intra-abdominal hemorrhage in carefully selected patients. It is very resource intensive and is only a bridge therapy, much like ECMO - Matt Astin


You may never know when the next recall will occur. Besides keeping track of the latest medication or device recalls, always try to find out where your produce comes from and never assume that your food is clean - HWN

Recalls Drugs

While the reasons for product recalls vary, they are commonly related to packaging defects, contamination of a product, improper testing of a product, or inherent safety problems which could lead a product to harm a patient - Alexander Gaffney

Recalls Medical Devices

Medical devices are intended to cure, but some may cause harm. We’re not collecting the data that would help us know the difference - Austin Frakt

Rectal Bleeding (Hematochezia)

The underlying etiology can vary from life-threatening variceal bleeding to clinically insignificant hemorrhoidal bleeding. The most common etiology is diverticular bleeding, which accounts for 20% to 55% of cases, followed by intestinal ischemia, anorectal disorders, and neoplasia, which each accounting for around 10% of cases.- Thomas G. Cotter MD

Rectal Prolapse

Rectal prolapse is an evagination of the rectal tissue through the anal opening. Factors that weaken the pelvic floor muscles increase the risk of rectal prolapse - Jarod Scott MD


Do not throw me out. Please - Diane Samuels, Kindertransport: A Drama

Recycling Repair Cafés: An Old Approach to New Tech

Part and parcel of our conspicuous consumerism is to buy new products even when the old ones can be repaired. It's an insidious cycle that may lead to ruin. But some people are trying to fix the problem⎯literally.

Red Blood Cell Disorders

These disorders have different clinical features and mechanisms of disease, but all result in anemia - Howard Topol

Red Blood Cells (RBCs)

Red cells are one of the few kinds of cells in the body with no nucleus and only a thin layer of protein skeleton under their membrane: they are living bags of hemoglobin - Amy Sung

Red Dye

Artificial coloring may give our food some pizazz, but the potential adverse effects of ingesting products with the eye-catching accents, particularly red dye, has been cause for concerns for decades. Other red dyes have been banned previously because of studies linking them to cancer. However, red dye No. 3 remains a staple in many items found in grocery stores, even though the U.S. Food and Drug Administration prohibited the cosmetics industry from using the additive for similar reasons in 1990 -

Red Eye

Red eye: just conjunctivitis or a serious problem - Richard Quinn

Red Meat

We all hear about how bad red meat is for both the planet’s health and our own. Planet-wise, there’s no argument: The detrimental effects of greenhouse gases from livestock production on the earth’s atmosphere can’t be overlooked - Claire Maldarelli

Red Tide

Not all algal blooms are created equal. Some just stink up lakes and ponds, but others pose a health risk or have cost coastal economies millions of dollars - Marion Renault

Red Wine

Here's the bottom line. It's possible, but far from certain, that you could get some health benefits from moderate drinking - Markham Heid

Refactory VF

If all else fails, give a double shock.. twice - jshibata

Refined Carbohydrates (Refined Carbs)

The loose label of refined carbs is an umbrella term generally used to describe carbohydrates that have had the bulk of their nutritional value removed during the manufacturing process - Lisa Young PhD

Refined Grains

The crux of the situation is that the shelf-life of products are far more important in our economy than the health and well-being of the people. If we are to lean on the "staff of life" for nutrition, we must identify the counterfeit refined grains from the real, whole grains - Food Matters

Refined Sugar

Western diets often include too much of a type of sugar called ‘refined sugar’. This is sugar which is extracted from the sugar cane or sugar beet plant and processed to remove its natural nutrients - Bhupesh Panchal


Most people often dismiss heartburn as common and trivial, an ailment to be treated with a grimace and a glug of thick, chalky pink liquid. But, while acid reflux is very common, it is far from insignificant - Glenn D Braunstein MD


One in every 122 humans is now either a refugee, internally displaced, or seeking asylum - UNHCR


While the Covid-19 virus was knocking the world off balance, scientists, production experts, office managers, logistics personnel and others at Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc. were gearing up in a monumental effort to find a therapy that could save lives.- Peter Katz

Regenerative Medicine

Regenerative medicine, which consists of tissue engineering, cell therapies, and healing therapies, is still in its infancy, but is a fast-growing segment in the medical field - A. John Hodge

Regional Anesthesia

While the pursuit of new techniques is always a worthy one, I also think there needs to be a movement toward getting the most out of the current blocks we have - Edward Mariano MD

Regional Enteritis

People with Crohn's disease know that life isn't always sunshine and roses - but it's also not always as "crappy" as it sometimes feels - Tracy Rosecrans

Rehab Therapist Careers

Imagine a career helping patients get back to what’s most important to them - Rehab Without Walls

Rehab Therapist Jobs

The rehab industry is not what it used to be. Can you believe that rehab therapy is coming to your local ICU

Rehab Therapists

From physical and occupational therapists to speech-language pathologists, rehab therapy is a booming industry


Even its cheerleaders recognize that there’s miles to go before all people with addiction have access to respectful, ethical, effective and evidence-based care - Maia Szalavitz

Rehabilitation Facilities

For the most part, addiction treatment has skirted evidence-based medicine, flourishing outside the mainstream - Zachary Siegel


The 5 elements within the system of Reiki--the precepts, the meditations, the hands-on healing, the symbols and mantras, and the attunement/reiju--are all keys to unlock our innate compassion and wisdom - Frans Stiene

Reiter's syndrome

Reactive arthritis may be self-limiting, frequently recurring, chronic or progressive. Most patients have severe symptoms lasting a few weeks to six months - Wikipedia


Sleep. Diet. Exercise. These three things, we’ve been told, are among the tried-and-true pillars of physical health. There is another, though—relationships - Amy X. Wang

Relaxation Drinks

The new drinks, containing plant extracts or even natural human hormones, are designed to chill you out without impairing your function as much as alcohol. Some have sugar, but others use low-calorie sweeteners - Laura Johannes


The main research behind Relaxium Sleep has some serious flaws and isn't robust. On top of that, many of the ingredients are not present in the right amounts to be clinically effective. However, the product performs adequately for some people - Database For Brain Effectiveness & Memory,

Relief Factor

Relief Factor is one of the most popular joint supplements in the world right now - J. Theorin

Religious Discrimination

As we have seen dramatically in recent years, unchecked persecution of religious minorities has been associated with two of the worst humanitarian calamities of our time — an unprecedented refugee crisis, and genocide - Thomas Reese

REM Sleep

REM sleep is more for mental restoration while non-REM sleep is more for physical restoration - Dr. Allison Brager


Although hardly a cure, the drug originally developed as an option for Ebola virus may yet find a life in the management of patients with pneumonia caused by severe COVID-19 - Brian Dunleavy

Remote Cardiac Event Monitoring

If virtual care — including remote heart monitoring — can give patients and clinicians a clearer picture of heart health in real time, experts project their use could become far more widespread in the coming months and years - Erin Brodwin

Remote Patient Monitoring

Cloud-connected medical devices save lives, but also raise questions about privacy, security, and oversight - Neta Alexander

Renal Artery Stenosis (RAS)

Precise diagnosis and detection of RAS is often a challenge due to the following problems: first, this disorder is usually asymptomatic, except the high blood pressure, which is a very common and asymptomatic disease. Second, most RAS cases occur along with other diseases that result in chronic renal diseases, especially high blood pressure and diabetes - Zahra Poshtchaman

Renal Colic

Kidney stone disease is one of the most common problems of the urinary system. Race, gender and ethnicity play a part in who may get kidney stones -

Renal Tubular Acidosis

The most clearly defined and recognisable form, and the one in which the molecular defects responsible have been best elucidated, is the syndrome known today as distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA); also called ‘classical’, ‘type 1′ or ‘hypokalaemic’ RTA, terms that encapsulate both its origin and one of its cardinal clinical features - Oliver M Wrong and Robert J Unwin

Renewable Energy

Renewable energy provides a chance to curb greenhouse gas emissions, lower the cost of electricity, and empower communities. It’s also better for public health. - Maria McCoy

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System

One of the coolest aspects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is that it involves multiple organ systems: the liver, lung, adrenal gland, kidney, and vasculature are all prominently involved - Nathan Hellman

Rental Nurses

Learn to be flexible & remember it's only temporary unless you chose to extend. Get everything in writing & review it carefully before you sign. Get info. about the area your staying- go & explore - Highway Hypodermics

Repetitive Stress & Overuse Injuries

It's called Repetitive Stress Injury for good reason—it is the many repetitions of the same movement over many years that cause the problems - Henrik Warne

Reproductive Health

We envision a world where every woman is free to decide whether and when to have children; where every woman has access to the best reproductive healthcare available; where every woman can exercise her choices - Center for Reproductive Rights

Reproductive Rights

Sexual and reproductive rights are integral to basic human rights. Yet they are commonly ignored by governments and at times receive short shrift from some members of the broader human rights community - Jacqueline Nolley Echegaray

Repurposed Drugs

Repurposing existing drugs by finding new targets, delivery methods, and formulations is a promising approach to speed the development of much-needed treatments - Lindsay Brownell

Repurposed Drugs for Covid-19

Repurposing drugs has immense benefits for both developers and consumers. Risks are greatly reduced, as the drugs have not only gone through safety trials but have been widely used - Robert Goldberg

Research Docs

No matter how counter-intuitive it may seem, basic research has proven over and over to be the lifeline of practical advances in medicine - Arthur Kornberg

Research Organizations

Health-related data is becoming more valuable, especially as research institutions and hospitals start using machine-learning to make sense of the growing volume of information - Daniela Hernandez

Research Professionals

Scientific research is one of the most exciting and rewarding of occupations - Frederick Sanger

Reset Diet

A reset diet is designed to reduce inflammation, improve digestion, burn fat, identify food intolerances, reduce allergic reactions or intolerance reactions, boost energy, regulate blood sugar, and stabilise mood. This is all done without restricting the number calories you eat - The Sustainable Training Method

Resistance Training

Most of us probably know exercising is associated with a smaller risk of premature death, but a new study has found that doesn’t have to happen in a CrossFit box, a ninja warrior studio, or even a gym - Emmanuel Stamatakis

Resistant Covid

The researchers have suggested that we need to be doing more to uncover those secret few in the population who might be genetically resistant to SARS-CoV-2 - Jacinta Bowler

Resistant Starches

What sets resistant starch apart is that unlike other types of starchy carbs, which break down into simple sugars in your small intestine (the place where most food is processed), resistant starch—aptly named because it “resists” digestion—stays intact until it reaches your large intestine (colon). This is why it’s technically classified as a dietary fiber - Matthew Kadey MS RD

Respiratory Acidosis

The causes of hypercapnia are very broad, so the evaluation will need to be tailored substantially depending on the clinical context - Josh Farkas

Respiratory Alkalosis

Hypocapnia is the most common acid-base disorder among critically ill patients. This shouldn't be surprising, since hypocapnia may be caused by almost any pulmonary disease, pain/anxiety, or sepsis – exceedingly common conditions among critically ill patients - Josh Farkas

Respiratory Health

The symptoms of dyspnea and noisy breathing are identical to those experienced by patients with lower airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD, and these similarities can lead to diagnostic confusion - Sidney Braman

Respiratory Infection Outbreaks

In addition to the widely recognized novel influenza A and coronavirus threats, other respiratory viruses have epidemic if not pandemic potential. These include human metapneumovirus, human respirovirus (formerly parainfluenza virus], rhinovirus C, respiratory syncytial virus, and multiple human adenovirus species. Many of these threats are now recognized as zoonotic - Gregory C Gray

Respiratory Infections

Overuse and antibiotic resistance is a massive problem, but our weapons manufacturers are also failing us: pharmaceutical companies are not inventing the new weapons we need - Alice Roberts

Respiratory Syncytial Virus

When infants get a URI it can be devastating with RSV being the most common cause of bronchiolitis (inflammation of the small airways in the lung) and pneumonia in children under 1 year of age

Respiratory Therapist Careers

Want to intervene in life and death situations, make a difference in people's lives, play with hi-tech machines, participate in critical care transport including air and still have a life - RT Cave

Respiratory Therapist Jobs

Many therapists can still expect to work in the hospital setting. However, opportunities outside the hospital will continue to grow -

Respiratory Therapists

When it comes to the ABCs, respiratory therapists are in the forefront

Respiratory Viruses

Respiratory viruses are the most frequent causative agents of disease in humans, with significant impact on morbidity and mortality worldwide. Common respiratory agents from several virus families are well adapted to efficient person-to-person transmission and circulate in a global scale, and community-based studies conducted over the past five decades or so confirm that these viruses are the predominant etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) - H.F. Boncristiani


If your mother cooks Italian food, why should you go to a restaurant? Martin Scorsese

Restless Legs Syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease)

Restless leg syndrome is now recognized as both a sleep disorder and a neurological disorder. Despite this progress, RLS still remains something of a mystery condition - Dr. Michael J. Breus

Restrictive Cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM) includes a heterogeneous group of diseases that cause increased myocardial stiffness, leading to impaired ventricular relaxation and severe diastolic dysfunction. Given that it is the least common type of cardiomyopathy, it can be a diagnostic challenge - Smitha Narayana Gowda


The focus on prehospital and early hospitalization interventions recognizes the critical importance of this time frame and early congruence between the emergency cardiac and trauma populations - Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium

Resuscitative Hysterotomy

The resuscitative hysterotomy, formerly called the perimortem C-section, but name recently changed to reflect that this procedure is good for both mother and fetus - Jonathan Kaplan


Resveratrol, found in the skin of red grapes, has long been revered as a magical compound in red wine that is believed to have numerous health effects such as lowering blood pressure and helping prevent heart attacks - Ariana Eunjung Cha

Retail Clinics

The American health care system may finally be catching up to the rest of the 21st-century economy, in which convenience is not only expected, but demanded — and massive retailers are driving the change - Jeffrey Young


The eyes may be windows to the soul, but the retina is the brain’s window to the world - Jane E. Brody

Retinal Detachment

RD is painless but nearly always causes symptoms, often before the detachment starts: a sudden appearance of many “floaters”... sudden brief flashes of light even when your eyes are closed or a shadow over part of your visual field - Jane Brody

Retinitis Pigmentosa

In retinitis pigmentosa, almost all of the eye’s circuitry remains intact—all but the crucial, light-absorbing cells of the retina. These slowly begin dying off, like stars winking out into the night - Rachel E. Gross


Children may be born with retinoblastoma, but the disease is rarely diagnosed at birth. Most children diagnosed with retinoblastoma can be cured, even if the retinoblastoma has spread beyond the eye. An important goal of treatment in children with retinoblastoma is preserving vision -

Retreats Weight Loss

From no-nonsense health clinics to luxurious spa-like experiences, these resorts are a far cry from the fat camps image that has been around for decades - Real Life Fitness and Health

Retrobulbar Hematoma

Lateral canthotomy with cantholysis is the treatment of choice for decompression of the orbit after retrobulbar hematoma. The only contraindication to lateral canthotomy include suspected globe rupture - Courtney McKee, MD

Retropharyngeal Abscess

Do not rely on the presence of respiratory compromise to make the diagnosis of retropharyngeal abscess - CA Gibson

Return of Spontaneous Circulation

The post arrest phase may potentially be as hectic as the arrest phase. You have multiple systems to think about and often must be thinking about them all simultaneously - Aaron Tiffee MD and Joel C. Mosley MD

Return to Learn & Play

The process of recovery and then return to sport participation after an SRC follows a graduated stepwise rehabilitation strategy - Paul McCrory

Reversal Anticoagulants

The wait is over for an antidote to stop rare uncontrolled bleeding linked to some newer blood thinners - Harvard Health

Reverse T3

Keep in mind that Reverse T3 itself is not evil. It is part of a healthy thyroid hormone metabolism. Every healthy person makes some every day, and that’s why there is a normal reference range for Reverse T3. However, “excess” Reverse T3, and the bigger picture of thyroid hormone inactivation, IS something that thyroid patients should be concerned about - Thyroid Patients Canada

Reye's Syndrome

Save a kid's aware of all the products that contain's mind-boggling - Reye's Syndrome Awareness

Rezūm Water Vapor Therapy

Among the various surgical treatments, Rezūm water vapor thermal therapy has been developed as a unique, rapid and reproducible minimally invasive surgical treatment exhibiting safe and early effective relief of LUTS/BPH - Christopher H Cantrill

Rh Negative

Us negs are a creative lot, and it doesn't mean just art - Rh Negative Blood Type Secrets

Rhabdomyolysis (Rhabdo)

While almost any intense activity can cause rhabdo, it almost always strikes people who are doing something new - Anahad O'Connor


Rheumatic fever (RF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) continue to be a major health hazard in most developing countries as well as sporadically in developed economies - R Krishna Kumar et al

Rheumatic Fever

Acute rheumatic fever is not a disease of the past and is not limited to populations that are underserviced or marginalized. Its presentation may be insidious or altered by concomitant medications or disease processes - Robert L. Myette

Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD)

Rheumatic heart disease is now unusual in most high-resource settings because of access to health care and availability of antibiotics. However, it remains endemic in socioeconomically vulnerable populations in high-income countries and in low- and middle-income country settings - Rosemary Wyber

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Scientists don't know what causes rheumatoid arthritis, but many suspect that the microbiome—the bacteria that live in our gastrointestinal tracts—may be to blame - David Kohn

Rheumatoid Arthrits & Kathleen Turner

Kathleen Turner has partnered with Wyeth to let others know that RA does not have to mean a lifetime of limitations, pain, and unanswered questions

Rheumatologist Journals

Huge sums are invested globally in medical research and development - and with good reason - Geoff Mulgan

Rheumatologist Organizations

Limitations live only in our minds. But if we use our imaginations, our possibilities become limitless - Paolinetti

Rheumatology (Rheumatologists)

I would venture to say that rheumatologists are probably more comfortable with ambiguity than most other - Karmela K Chan MD


Rhinitis is a global problem and is defined as the presence of at least one of the following: congestion, rhinorrhea, sneezing, nasal itching, and nasal obstruction. The two major classifications are allergic and nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) - Nguyen P Tran


As the number one cosmetic procedure, rhinoplasty is considered the most challenging - Geri Spieler


If there is a champion among contagions, it may well be the lowly rhinovirus, responsible for many of the coughs and sniffles that trouble us - Carl Zimmer

Rhnull Golden Blood

Golden blood sounds like the latest in medical quackery. As in, get a golden blood transfusion to balance your tantric midichlorians and receive a free charcoal ice cream cleanse - Kevin Dickinson


Anti-D is the only product that I know...that is administered to a person (the pregnant or postnatal woman) whom it does not directly physically benefit, but who has to accept the risk of possible side effects from it - Sara Wickham

Rib Cage (Ribs)

These bony spindles in your torso attach to your sternum (breast bone) to protect your lungs, heart, spleen, and most of the liver and help with giving shape to your chest cavity, which assists in breathing. Ribs are protective on the one hand, but if badly broken, your ribs can turn lethal to you, piercing your organs - Jordan Rosenfeld


Riboflavin, and its efficacy, can be destroyed by exposure to light. This is why you should limit this vitamin’s exposure to light and you shouldn’t store it in glass containers - Today I Found Out


Let me draw your attention to rice – diminutive member of the cereal grain family, frequent component of anti-low-carb advocates’ arguments, and the source of much consternation among grain abstainers. Is white rice the proverbial black sheep of the grain family? Does it deserve our full and unwavering opposition? Or, perhaps, can we treat rice like that crazy uncle who drinks a bit too much at family gatherings - Mark Sisson


Ricin is much easier to produce than other popular biological weapons like botulinum, sarin, and anthrax, but it is not as potent as any of those, which limits its effectiveness as a weapon - Dan Nosowitz

Rick Steves Using Travel to Better the World

“Keep on travelin’,” he says at the end of most of his travelogues. But for Rick Steves, it’s a catchphrase that is no less about self-betterment than sightseeing. And he walks the walk.


Although there are genetic and metabolic causes of rickets, the most common cause is a lack of vitamin D -

Rickettsia rickettsii

As prompt treatment of RMSF is critical to a positive outcome, dx should be made on clinical grounds, history, epidemiology & exam. This can be challenging, as many pts will not recall the tick bite - Lyme and Tick-borne Diseases Research Center

Rifampin (Rifampicin)

The rifamycins include rifampin, rifapentine, and rifabutin. Of these, rifampin is most commonly used, either as first-line therapy (in combination with other agents) for treatment of mycobacterial disease (including tuberculosis) or for select invasive staphylococcal infections (as part of combination therapy) - Richard H Drew PharmD


Rifamycins are integral part of the combination regimen for treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium-complex [MAC] infection, but different practitioners prefer different rifamycins - Gunavanthi D. Boorgula

Right Heart Failure

There are limited therapeutic options, they are brittle in their response to interventions, and they are usually on a spectrum of vasodilators that we have to reference on Up-To-Date - Quentin Reuter MD

Right to Health Care

The enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health is one of the fundamental rights of every human being without distinction of race, religion, political belief, economic or social condition - WHO

Right to Try

Right to Try helps terminal patients get the potentially life-saving medicines they need before it's too late.-


Treatment may require several weeks. Only by treating for at least one week after the resolution of symptoms (and for a total of at least 4 weeks) can one guarantee eradication - Dr. Greene

Riot Control Agents (Tear Gas, Mace & Pepper Spray)

“Tear gas” is an umbrella term for riot-control agents with chemical irritants, but the name is a misnomer - Allison C. Meier

Risks Covid-19

What we do know is that everyone is different, and your own level of risk is affected by many different interacting factors including age and existing health conditions - Heart Matters

Risperidone (Risperdal)

The rate of off-label use of antipsychotics worldwide is still high. Risperidone is reportedly the antipsychotic the most commonly prescribed off-label - Ismaeel Yunusa

Ritalin/Concerta (Methylphenidate)

At long last, the scientific research community is rethinking a 20-year old study about the benefits of medicating ADHD with stimulants like Ritalin - Dale Archer


Restless leg syndrome is now recognized as both a sleep disorder and a neurological disorder. Despite this progress, RLS still remains something of a mystery condition - Dr. Michael J. Breus


As prompt treatment of RMSF is critical to a positive outcome, dx should be made on clinical grounds, history, epidemiology & clinical exam. This can be challenging, as many pts will not recall the tick bite - Lyme and Tick-borne Diseases Research Center

RNA (Ribonucleic acid)

RNAs, or ribonucleic acids, are some of the most important molecules for life on this planet. RNA is found in every cell in the body, and plays an important role in the flow of genetic information - Oliver Rogoyski

Robotic Surgery

We’re all going to have to adapt to AI and robotics - Matt Beane


Personally, I'm not afraid of a robot uprising. The benefits far outweigh the threats - Daniel H. Wilson

Robots: Innovation or Hype?

Sci Fi film scenes from 50 years ago are now an everyday reality, robots performing complicated surgery. So, do they make a difference?

Rocephin (Ceftriaxone)

Ceftriaxone is a commonly used third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic. Its pharmacokinetic profile, spectrum of coverage, and tolerability make it an attractive option for use in the emergency department (ED), outpatient clinic, and hospital setting - Spencer H. Durham PharmD

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

As prompt treatment of RMSF is critical to a positive outcome, dx should be made on clinical grounds, history, epidemiology & clinical exam. This can be challenging, as many pts will not recall the tick bite - Lyme and Tick-borne Diseases Research Center


Rocuronium > Succinylcholine in my opinion — All day, every day - Jared Patterson

Roe vs Wade

When the all-male supreme court ruled to protect abortion rights in 1973, activists didn’t foresee the fight that lay ahead - Jessica Glenza

Rogaine (Minoxidil)

Minoxidil was first introduced as an antihypertensive medication and the discovery of its common adverse event, hypertrichosis, led to the development of a topical formulation for promoting hair growth. To date, topical minoxidil is the mainstay treatment for androgenetic alopecia - Poonkiat Suchonwanit,

Rohypnol (Roofies)

"Roofies." Sounds like a cartoon character or a piece of candy. However, nothing could be further from the truth about Roofies, also known as the drug Rohypnol - Neuroscience for Kids


Move over massage, it’s time to welcome Rolfing. Developed in the mid-20th century by Ida Rolf, this is a hands-on process used for the treatment of injuries and chronic pain - Lucy Fry

Root Canals

If there’s any one dental topic that is misunderstood, it’s root canals. Maybe it’s because of the name. If you think about it, almost every other dental treatment term sounds fairly harmless - Thomas P Connelly DDS


47 percent of #rosacea patients surveyed had never heard of rosacea prior to receiving their diagnosis, and a whopping 95 percent said they had known little or nothing about the signs and symptoms of the disorder - National Rosacea Society


Other rarely used names for it are exanthema subitum (which means sudden rash), roseola infantum, or sixth disease - Nurse Judy

Rotator Cuff Injury

There is an increasing amount of surgery being performed for rotator cuff tears. The rate of cuff repair surgery is increasing, even though the guidelines for performing rotator cuff surgery remain quite uncertain - Federick Matsen MD


Rotavirus causes about one-third of diarrheal deaths in children; vaccinating children against it could save hundreds of thousands of lives and make life easier for so many parents - Marion Roche

Rotavirus Vaccine

Vaccine kicked Rotavirus to the curb in a few short years - Tara Haelle

Roundup (Glyphosate)

With the question of the endocrine-disrupting potential of Roundup at real-world doses still unsolved and glyphosate classified as a probable carcinogen, it’s time to restrict or ban glyphosate herbicides - Dr Ramon Seidler PhD

Roundworms (Nematodes)

Roundworms, also known as nematodes, are a common term for parasites that comprise the phylum Nematoda that contain mainly free-living species and are located everywhere on earth - Charles Patrick Davis MD PhD

RSI (Rapid Sequence Intubation)

Rapid sequence intubation (RSI) is an airway management technique that produces inducing immediate unresponsiveness (induction agent) and muscular relaxation (neuromuscular blocking agent) and is the fastest and most effective means of controlling the emergency airway - Chris Nickson

RSI (Rapid Sequence Intubation) Pediatrics

RSI is superior to and more reliable than nasotracheal intubation, oral endotracheal intubation without neuromuscular blockade (NMB), and surgical cricothyroidotomy - Michael J Gerardi MD


Since RSV cannot be prevented, the best thing a parent can do is try to postpone it - Christopher Johnson

RSV Vaccines

The goal of RSV vaccination is not to prevent RSV infection but, rather, to prevent RSV-associated LRI - Robert A. Dudas


The most clearly defined and recognisable form, and the one in which the molecular defects responsible have been best elucidated, is the syndrome known today as distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA); also called ‘classical’, ‘type 1′ or ‘hypokalaemic’ RTA, terms that encapsulate both its origin and one of its cardinal clinical features - Oliver M Wrong and Robert J Unwin

Rubella (German Measles)

Although rubella usually produces only a relatively mild rash and fever in children and adults, it is devastating to fetuses in the first trimester - Donald G. McNeil Jr


Measles is probably the best argument for why there needs to be global health, and why we have to think about it as a global public good - Seth Berkley


Rucking, which is simply walking with a weighted backpack, is a great way to combine strength training and cardio without setting foot inside a gym - Hilary Achauer

RUG (Retrograde Urethrogram)

To keep up with the time sensitivity that most trauma patients present with, the RUG has been shown to not only be an efficient test but to be the primary modality and most efficacious test in evaluating patients who have concerning findings of urethral injury. It is a test that is readily available in locations with radiology capabilities and can be quickly done in the department - Taming the SRU

Runner's Knee

On the bright side, you are not doomed to be a couch potato as a result of this diagnosis! In fact, exercising and stretching while dealing with knee pain can actually help treat your patellofemoral pain - Jenny Llewellyn


Running is the greatest metaphor for life, because you get out of it what you put into it - Oprah Winfrey

Running Apps

Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic - Arthur C. Clarke

Running Events

Act like a horse. Be dumb. Just run - Jumbo Elliot

Running Vacations

You're a love sit at work and think about can't wait for your next love it so much that you wish there was a way to base your vacation around running? Your wish has come true -

Ruptured Eardrum (Tympanic Membrane Perforation)

Tympanic membrane rupture can occur at any age, although it is mainly seen in the younger population, associated with acute otitis media. As a patient's age increases, trauma becomes a more likely cause of TM rupture - Nicole Dolhi

Ruptured Globe

You should suspect it when someone has moderate to severe pain, decreased vision, hyphema, and deviation of the pupil - Drew Carlton

Rural America

This virus does not recognize geographic or economic boundaries, and it may punish, rather than reward, the traditionally self-sufficient. Let’s lend them a homegrown hand - Dr. Jennifer Olson

Rural Health

Physicians who are drawn to rural practice want to make a difference in peoples lives and want to have a respected position where you care for a town and the town cares for you. Robert C. Bowman MD

Rural Health Journals

I roamed the countryside searching for answers to things I did not understand - Leonardo da Vinci

Rural Health Organizations

Almost half of the population of the world lives in rural regions and mostly in a state of poverty. Such inequalities in human development have been one of the primary reasons for unrest and, in some parts of the world, even violence - A.P.J.Abdul Kalam


The FAST Scan is used in the trauma setting to figure out where a patient may be hemorrhaging from. The RUSH Exam on the other hand is a more broad ultrasound protocol used on any patient with undifferentiated hypotension - Vi Dinh


Riding a wave of interest in ancient grains, rye is sprouting in many influential kitchens — in pasta, porridge, brownies and, most gratifyingly, in bread - Julia Moskin

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