It is widely assumed that the most likely manifestation of a pandemic will be a respiratory illness. Severe acute respiratory infections abound in hospitals, and many of these are caused by viruses. Several viral families have the capacity to cause severe acute respiratory infections, and it is important to understand the epidemiology of the viruses that cause severe respiratory infections not only to optimize patient care but to have situational awareness for changes in viral behavior.
Among the viruses that cause respiratory infections are the human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs). This group of RNA viruses, which are part of the paramyxovirus family that also includes viruses such as RSV, Nipah, Hendra, and metapneumovirus, consists of 4 strains
Parainfluenza was responsible for signiﬁcant morbidity, proving to be the second-most prevalent viral agent in this population after respiratory syncytial virus. No difference in clinical presentation was found between the two groups, but mortality was higher in the HPIV+ group.
These viruses were first discovered in the late 1950s, when three different viruses recovered from children with lower respiratory disease proved to by unique and easily separated from the myxoviruses (influenza virus) they closely resembled. This new family of respiratory viruses grew poorly in embryonated eggs and shared few antigenic sites with influenza virus. In 1959, a fourth virus was found that also met these criteria, and a new taxonomic group was created called “parainfluenza viruses.”
Parainfluenza is a common virus that can cause both upper and lower respiratory infections, including colds, bronchitis, croup, and pneumonia. Despite the name, it is not related to influenza (the flu) because it is caused by an entirely different virus known as human parainfluenza virus (HPIV).
How many colds have you had in your life?
That's still less than the average toddler. Little known scientific fact: Toddlers always have a cold. They get them from daycares and ball pits and playgrounds and terrorists.
The big difference? A cold might mess up your week. But with infants and toddlers? Getting a common cold can get much worse, really fast.
Croup, or laryngotracheobronchitis is the commonest clinical manifestation of parainfluenza virus infection. Parainfluenza viruses are found uncommonly associated with other respiratory tract infections in children such as tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and bronchopneumonia. Occasionally, a mild non-specific illness is seen after parainfluenza virus infection. Parainfluenza viruses produce disease throughout the year, but peak prevalence rates occur during wintertime outbreaks of respiratory tract infections, especially croup, in children throughout the temperate zones of the northern and southern hemispheres.
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in infants and young children. But anyone can get HPIV illness. Symptoms may include fever, runny nose, and cough. Patients usually recover on their own. However, HPIVs can also cause more severe illness, such as croup or pneumonia.
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) were first discovered in the late 1950s. Over the last decade, considerable knowledge about their molecular structure and function has been accumulated. This has led to significant changes in both the nomenclature and taxonomic relationships of these viruses. HPIV is genetically and antigenically divided into types 1 to 4.
In normal cases, Parainfluenza does not require any treatment, other than taking plenty of rest, drinking lots of fluids, and if needed, availing over-the-counter medication for fever.
Information on the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs).
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of organisms, types 1 through 4, that cause several different respiratory infections. For example, they are the major cause of croup, which is an inflammation of the voice box (larynx) and windpipe (trachea) that makes breathing more difficult.
They also cause some cases of lower respiratory tract diseases, including pneumonia (a lung infection) and bronchiolitis (an infection of the lung’s small breathing tubes). They can make the symptoms of chronic lung disease worse in children.
Parainfluenza viruses have an incubation period of 2 to 6 days. T
Parainfluenza viruses include several closely related viruses that cause many respiratory illnesses varying from the common cold to an influenza-like syndrome or pneumonia; croup is the most common severe manifestation. Diagnosis is usually clinical. Treatment is supportive.
Parainfluenza viruses are also known to cause a great burden of illness on children. The main clinical manifestations of parainfluenza virus infections are laryngitis, croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, with acute otitis media and pneumonia as the commonest complications. Currently, no antiviral treatments of vaccines are available against parainfluenza virus infections, but vaccines against parainfluenza type 3 viruses are being developed.
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are a group of four distinct serotypes of single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family.
They are the second most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in younger children.
Parainfluenza virus serotypes 1, 2 and 3 cause laringotracheobronchitis (croup) in children between two and four years of age. Serotype 3 is the second agent producing pneumonia in children less than one year old (after respiratory syncytial virus) and it also has an epidemic pattern.